Overview

Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyerm.:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Hepatica americana (DC.) Ker Gawl.:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Man., N.B., N.S., Ont., Que.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Throughout eastern North America.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Aerial shoots 5-18 cm, from rhizomes, rhizomes ascending to horizontal. Basal leaves 3-15, often purplish abaxially, simple, deeply divided; petiole 5-20 cm; leaf blade widely orbiculate, 1.5-7 × 2-10 cm, base cordate, margins entire, apex rounded, surfaces strongly villous to glabrescent; lobes 3(-4), widely ovate, 1-4 cm wide; middle lobe 50-70(-75)% of total blade length. Inflorescences 1-flowered, villous to pilose; involucral bracts 3, 1-tiered, simple, dissimilar to basal leaves, sessile, calyx-like, closely subtending flower, ovate or elliptic, 0.65-1.8 × 0.5-1.2 cm, bases distinct, cuneate, margins entire, apex obtuse, strongly villous to glabrescent. Flowers: sepals 5-12, white to pink or bluish, ovate to obovate 7.5-14.5 × 3.5-7.7 mm, glabrous; petals absent; stamens 10-30. Heads of achenes spheric; pedicel 0.1-0.4 cm. Achenes: body narrowly ovoid, 3.5-5 × 1.2-1.6 mm, slightly winged, hispid, gradually tapering; beak indistinct. 2 n =14.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Hepatica triloba Chaix var. americana de Candolle, Syst. Nat. 1: 216. 1817; H. americana (de Candolle) Ker-Gawler; H. nobilis Miller var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyermark; H. triloba var. obtusa Pursh
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Ecology

Habitat

Mixed woods, often in association with both conifers and deciduous trees; 0-1200m.
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Comments: Moist, rich woods, esp. acidic soils.

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Blunt-Lobed Hepatica in Illinois

Hepatica americana (Blunt-Lobed Hepatica)
(bees mostly collect pollen, although some merely explore the flowers; flies usually feed on pollen, although some merely explore the flowers; according to Motten, the flowers of this plant don't provide nectar; observations are from Motten)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera cp; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus bimaculatus cp; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada spp. exp

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Lasioglossum spp. cp, Lasioglossum macoupinensis cp fq; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena carlini cp, Andrena erigeniae exp, Andrena nigrihirta cp fq, Andrena tridens cp fq

Flies
Syrphidae: Toxomerus geminatus fp; Bombyliidae: Bombylius major exp/fp fq; Anthomyiidae: Delia platura fp fq; Tachinidae: Gonia sp. exp/fp

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering spring.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Anemone americana

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anemone americana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

Reasons: Widespread and abundant.

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Wikipedia

Anemone hepatica

Anemone hepatica (Common Hepatica, liverwort,[2] kidneywort, pennywort) is a herbaceous perennial growing from a rhizome in the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), native to woodland in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

Taxonomy[edit]

The taxonomy of the genus Anemone and its species is not fully resolved, but the latest phylogenetic studies of many species of Anemone and related genera[3] indicate that Hepatica should be included under Anemone because of similarities both in molecular attributes and other shared morphologies.[4]

Description[edit]

Anemone hepatica grows 5–15 cm (2–6 in) high. Leaves and flowers emerge directly from the rhizome, not from a stem above ground.

The leaves have three lobes and are fleshy and hairless, 7–9 cm (2.8–3.5 in) wide and 5–6 cm (2.0–2.4 in) long. The upper side is dark green with whitish stripes and the lower side is violet or reddish-brown. Leaves emerge during or after flowering and remain green through winter.

The flowers are blue, purple, pink, or white and appear in winter or spring. They have five to ten oval showy sepals and three green bracts.

Gallery[edit]

Varieties[edit]

Varieties of Anemone hepatica that are recognized as distinct include:[1]

  • Anemone hepatica var. acuta
  • Anemone hepatica var. japonica
  • Anemone hepatica var. transylvanica

Contents[edit]

Like other Ranunculaceae, fresh liverwort contains protoanemonin and is therefore slightly toxic. By drying the herb, protoanemonin is dimerized to the non-toxic anemonin.

Herbalism[edit]

Medieval herbalists believed it could be used to treat liver diseases, and is still used in alternative medicine today. Other modern applications by herbalists include treatments for pimples, bronchitis and gout.[5]

Political associations[edit]

It is the official flower of the Sweden Democrats political party, in Swedish politics. In Swedish the flower is known as blåsippa.

Distribution and Habitat[edit]

It is found in the woods, thickets and meadows, especially in the mountains of the continental Europe.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "The Plant List: A Working List of all Plant Species". 
  2. ^ Horace Kephart (1936). "Early Spring Flowers of the North Carolina Mountains". The Journal of the Southern Appalachian Botanical Club 1 (7): 77–83. 
  3. ^ Sara B. Hoot, Anton A. Reznicek, Jeffrey D. Palmer (January–March 1994). "Phylogenetic Relationships in Anemone (Ranunculaceae) Based on Morphology and Chloroplast DNA". Systematic Botany 19 (1): 169–200. doi:10.2307/2419720. JSTOR 2419720. 
  4. ^ Flora of North America
  5. ^ Howard, Michael. Traditional Folk Remedies (Century, 1987); p.161–2
  • Pignatti S. - Flora d'Italia - Edagricole – 1982 Vol. I pag. 277
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Notes

Comments

Anemone americana is found in habitats similar to those of A . acutiloba but usually in drier sites with more acid soils.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Kartesz (1999) Includes Hepatica americana ( = Anemone americana) in H. nobilis var. obtusa. Flora of North America (1997, vol. 3) recognizes Anemone americana as a distinct species, with H. nobilis var. obtusa in synonymy. Kartesz (1999) and FNA show similar ranges, suggesting they may be using different names for the same taxon.

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