Indian Ocean - Amsterdam Island
Habitat and Ecology
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 2012Critically Endangered
Date Listed: 01/12/1995
Lead Region: Foreign (Region 10)
Where Listed: Entire
Population location: Entire
Listing status: E
For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Diomedea exulans amsterdamensis, see its USFWS Species Profile
In 2012, Diomedea exulans amsterdamensis was included among the world's 100 most threatened species in a report by the IUCN Species Survival Commission and the Zoological Society of London.
- Fiona Harvey (September 10, 2012). "The expendables? World's 100 most endangered species listed". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2012/sep/11/100-most-endangered-species-listed. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
- Jonathan E. M. Baillie & Ellen R. Butcher (2012). Priceless or Worthless? (PDF). Zoological Society of London. ISBN 978-0-900881-67-1. http://static.zsl.org/files/priceless-or-worthless-final-wq-2040-2050.pdf
ACAP Annex 1. All birds are banded and the population is censused and monitored every year (Micol and Jouventin 1995), and some birds have been fitted with satellite transmitters. In 1987 the number of cattle was reduced and a fence erected to seal off part of the island, then in 1992 a second fence was erected with the aim of providing complete protection for the high plateau from possible incursions by cattle (Micol and Jouventin 1995). Cattle eradication began in 2009 and was completed in 2011. Following this, fences were removed and Phylica trees were replanted (T. Micol in litt. 2012). A resolution in June 2008 from the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission requiring long-line vessels to use preventative measures to avoid by-catch of seabirds may be important for this species (Hirschfeld 2008). Blood sampling has been carried out to determine the presence of disease (T. Micol in litt. 2012). Strict measures are now in place to prevent biologists facilitating the spread of disease from the nearby Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross colony (T. Micol in litt. 2012). A national plan of action for the species covering the period 2011-2015 was published in 2011 (Delord et al. 2011).
Conservation and Researc Actions Proposed
Prevent the spread of disease. Continue detailed monitoring of the population. Promote adoption of best-practice mitigation measures in all fisheries within the species's range, particularly via intergovernmental mechanisms such as ACAP, FAO and appropriate Regional Fisheries Management Organisations. Submit an eradication plan for rats, cats and mice to the TAAF (Terres australes et antarctiques françaises) administration (T. Micol in litt. 2012).
The Amsterdam albatross or Amsterdam Island albatross, Diomedea amsterdamensis, is a huge albatross which breeds only on Amsterdam Island in the southern Indian Ocean. It was only described in 1983, and was thought by some researchers to be a sub-species of the wandering albatross, D. exulans. BirdLife International and the IOC recognize it as a species, James Clements does not, and the SACC has a proposal on the table to split the species. More recently, mitchondrial DNA comparisons between the Amsterdam albatross, the wandering albatross Diomedea exulans, the Antipodean albatross D. antipodensis and the Tristan albatross D. dabbenena, provide clear genetic evidence that the Amsterdam albatross is a separate species.
Albatrosses belong to Diomedeidae family and come from the Procellariiformes order, along with shearwaters, fulmars, storm petrels, and diving petrels. They share certain identifying features. First, they have nasal passages attached to the upper bill called naricorns. Although the nostrils on the albatross are on the sides of the bill. The bills of Procellariiformes are also unique in that they are split into between seven and nine horny plates. Finally, they produce a stomach oil made up of wax esters and triglycerides that is stored in the proventriculus. This is used against predators and serves as well as an energy-rich food source for chicks and for adults during their long flights.
The scientific name Diomedea amsterdamensis is composed of Diomedea, from the marooned Greek hero Diomedes, whose companions were turned to birds, and amsterdamensis, a Latin form of the name of the island where they are found.
Range and habitat
The Amsterdam albatross breeds only on Amsterdam Island, part of the French Southern Territories in the southern Indian Ocean, at an altitude of between 500–600 m (1,600–2,000 ft) above sea level on the Plateau des Tourbières. There is uncertainty regarding its whereabouts when it is not breeding, though there have been possible sightings in Australia and New Zealand.
The Amsterdam albatross is a great albatross that breeds in brown, rather than in the more usual white, plumage. This bird weighs 4.8–8 kg (11–18 lb) and is 107–122 cm (42–48 in) long with a wingspan of 280–340 cm (110–130 in). The adult bird has chocolate brown upper parts and is white on its face mask, throat, lower breast, and belly. It has a broad brown breast band along with brown undertail coverts. Its pink bill has a dark tip and dark cutting edges, and finally, its underwings are white except for the dark tip and the dark leading edge.
Because of its rarity, the feeding ecology and at-sea distribution of the Amsterdam albatross is not well understood, although it is believed that the birds eat squid, crustaceans, and fish. Off-duty birds during the incubation stage of the breeding cycle cover large areas of the Indian Ocean, travelling up to 2,400 km (1,500 mi).
Amsterdam albatrosses breed biennially in open marshy ground. Both parents incubate the egg in alternate stints that last for about a week, with the chick hatching after 80 days. The chick is brooded for a month, and overall takes 230 days to fledge. At first it is fed by its parents every three days, with the feeding frequency reduced as it approaches fledging. At the peak of weight gain the chick weighs more than its parents, but then loses weight as the extra reserves are used to grow feathers. Having fledged, the young bird stays at sea for around five years before returning to the colony, and begins breeding a few years later. The breeding "language" of the Amsterdam albatross is similar to that of the wandering albatross.
The Amsterdam albatross is listed as critically endangered, by the IUCN, with an occurrence range of 4,400,000 km2 (1,700,000 sq mi) and a breeding range of only 7 km2 (2.7 sq mi). The population upon discovery was just five breeding pairs; with conservation this has increased to eighteen to twenty-five breeding pairs. Monitored continuously since 1983, the world population is estimated at 80 mature individuals and a total of some 130 birds. The island on which the albatross breeds has undergone a significant decline in habitat condition due to the introduction of ship rats, feral cats and cattle, while the birds are threatened at sea by the practice of longline fishing. The draining of a peat bog on the plateau has degraded the breeding environment, and because there is only one breeding location, they are also especially vulnerable to diseases such as Pasteurella multocida (avian cholera) and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.
To help in conservation efforts banding of the birds and frequent censuses are undertaken. Feral cattle were eliminated from Amsterdam Island in 2010.
- BirdLife International (2013). "Diomedea amsterdamensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- BirdLife International (2008b)
- Clements, J. (2007)
- Remsen Jr., J. V. (2009)
- Sibley D. A. (2001)
- Double, M. C. (2003)
- Gotch, A. F. (1995)
- BirdLife International (2008a)
- Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP), Species assessment: Amsterdam Albatross Diomedea amsterdamensis, 2010.
- BirdLife International (2008a). "Amsterdam Albatross - BirdLife Species Factsheet". Data Zone. Retrieved 18 Feb 2009.
- BirdLife International (2008b). "The BirdLife checklist of the birds of the world, with conservation status and taxonomic sources." (xls). Retrieved 18 Feb 2009.[dead link]
- Clements, James (2007). The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World (6 ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4501-9.
- Double, M. C. (2003). "Procellariiformes". In Hutchins, Michael; Jackson, Jerome A.; Bock, Walter J. et al. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. 8 Birds I Tinamous and Ratites to Hoatzins. Joseph E. Trumpey, Chief Scientific Illustrator (2 ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. pp. 107–110. ISBN 0-7876-5784-0.
- Gotch, A. F. (1995) . "Albatrosses, Fulmars, Shearwaters, and Petrels". Latin Names Explained A Guide to the Scientific Classifications of Reptiles, Birds & Mammals. New York, NY: Facts on File. p. 190. ISBN 0-8160-3377-3.
- Rains, D.; Weimerskirch, H.; Burg, T. M. (January 2011). "Piecing together the global population puzzle of wandering albatrosses: genetic analysis of the Amsterdam albatross Diomedea amsterdamensis". Journal of Avian Biology 42 (1): 69–79. doi:10.1111/j.1600-048X.2010.05295.x.
- Remsen Jr., J. V.; et al. (Jan 2009). "Proposal (388) to South American Classification Committee: Split Diomedea exulans into four species". South American Classification Committee. American Ornithologists' Union. Archived from the original on 21 February 2009. Retrieved 18 Feb 2009.
- Sibley, David Allen; Elphick, Chris; Dunning Jr., John B.; Armistead, George L.; Badyaev, Alex; Barker, F. Keith; Behrstock, Robert A.; Brinkley, Edward S.; Cech, Rick; Clark Jr., George A.; Collins, Charles T.; Davis Jr., William E.; Delehanty, David J.; Garrett, Kimball L.; Geupel, Geoffrey R.; Groschupf, Kathleen; Groth, Jeff; Grzybowski, Joseph A.; Hendricks, Paul; Humann, Alec; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Jones, Ian L.; Knight, Thomas; Kricher, John; Kruper, David J.; Laymon, Stephen A.; McGowan, Kevin J.; Nur, Nadav; Petersen, Wayne R.; Reed, J. Michael; Rising, James D.; Rosenberg, Gary H.; Rubega, Margaret; Sargent, Robert; Sargent, Martha; Seng, William J.; Sheldon, Frederick H.; Snyder, Helen; Thompson, Christopher W.; Trost, Charles H.; Warnock, Nils; Warnock, Sarah; Weller, Milton W.; Wells, Allison Childs; Wells, Jeffrey V.; Williamson, Sheri L.; Winkler, David W.; Witmer, Mark (2001). Elphick, Chris; Dunning Jr., John B.; Sibley, David Allen, eds. The Sibley Guide to Bird Life and Behavior. Illustrated by David Allen Sibley (First ed.). New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-679-45123-4.
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