Overview

Distribution

Spectral tarsiers, Tarsius tarsier, are endemic to the Indonesian islands of Southeast Asia including Sulawesi, Pulau Peleng, and Pulau Selajar. The greatest densities of this species are found in the northern peninsula of Sulawesi Island.

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

  • Wright, P., E. Simons, S. Gursky. 2003. Tarsiers: past, present, and future. United States of America: Rutgers University Press.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range Description

By definition, T. tarsier is the rump taxon of tarsiers that remain in the Sulawesi biogeographic region, after excluding T. sangirensis, T. pumilus, T. dentatus, T. pelengensis, and T. lariang. This leaves T. tarsier, sensu lato, with an unlikely distribution that includes Sulawesi, Buton, Muna, Kabaena, Selayar, and the Togian Islands, below 1,800 m (with an actual vertical distribution that likely stops somewhere between 1,100-1,500 m), except those portions of Sulawesi that lie within the ranges of T. dentatus and T. lariang. As discussed by Brandon-Jones et al. (2004), this is distribution is improbably disjunct. It is more likely that this population is subdivided into numerous insular and parapatric species, as hypothesized by Shekelle and Leksono (2004) and Brandon-Jones et al. (2004).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Spectral tarsiers have a small, round body covered in soft, velvety fur. Their pelage ranges from gray to buff-gray in color. They have long scaly tails with tufts of fur only present on the distal third of the tail. Spectral tarsiers exhibit sexual dimorphism: females weigh 102 to 114 g while males weight 118 to 130 g.

Members of the genus Tarsius possess long, slender hands, feet, and digits. Their hands are thought to be the longest of any living primate relative to body size. These extremely elongated hands are designed for clinging and gripping despite the lack of opposable thumbs. The third finger of T. tarsier is extremely long and slender and is only 15% shorter than the humerus. This trait is not symmetrically reproduced from the anterior to the posterior, as the fourth digit is the longest of the hindlimb digits. The second and third digits of the hindlimb are equipped with specialized toilet claws. Spectral tarsiers are thought to be the most primitive tarsiers, as they lack disks on the ends of their fingers.

Tarsiers are among the smallest known primates. Their head-body length ranges from 9.5 to 14 cm and tail length ranges from 20 to 26 cm. Total length ranges from 29.5 to 40 cm. Spectral tarsiers have long legs that are specialized for their saltatory form of locomotion; they can jump more than 40 times the length of their body. The tibia and fibula are fused together and act as a shock absorber when the animal jumps from tree to tree. The hindlimbs of tarsiers are twice as long as their head-body length. The femur, the bones of the lower leg (the fused tibia and fibula), and the bones of the foot are each roughly equal in length.

Tarsiers have the biggest eyes of any mammal relative to their body weight. In fact, their eyes are larger than their brain. Interestingly, tarsiers lack a tapetum lucidum, a highly reflective layer behind the retina that is characteristic of most nocturnal mammals. Instead tarsiers have extremely large eyes and a well-developed fovea to maximize light-gathering capacity and to allow the development of highly resolved pin-sharp vision. These adaptations have bestowed tarsiers with the most acute night vision of all primates. The eyes of spectral tarsiers are immobile due to their large size, but this is compensated for by the ability to rotate the head 180 degrees.

The ears of spectral tarsiers are thin and membranous and are able to move independently. Tarsiers possess sharp, heterodont teeth and quadrate molars. The dental formula of tarsiers is: I2/1, C1/1, P3/3, M3/3 = 34. Spectral tarsiers have a low basal metabolic rate and a low body temperature. They do not exhibit torpor, yet brown adipose tissue can be found in adults within the interscapular area; this is likely a retained paedomorphic trait.

Range mass: 102 to 130 g.

Range length: 9.5 to 14 cm.

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

  • MacDonald, D. 2006. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File.
  • MacKinnon, J., K. MacKinnon. 1980. The behaviour of wild spectral tarsiers.. International Journal of Primatology, 1(4): 361-379.
  • McNab, M., P. Wright. 1987. Temperature regulation and oxygen consumption in the Philippine tarsier Tarsius syrichta. Physiological Zoology, 60: 596-600.
  • Napier, J., P. Napier. 1985. The Natural History of the Primates. Great Britain: MIT Press.
  • Rosenberger, A. 2010. The Skull of Tarsius: Functional Morphology, Eyeballs, and the Nonpursuit Predatory Lifestyle. International Journal of Primatology, 31: 1032-1054.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Type for Tarsius tarsier
Catalog Number: USNM 218071
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Male; Adult
Preparation: Skin; Skull
Collector(s): H. Raven
Year Collected: 1916
Locality: Laboea Sore [= Labuasore], N of Parigi, Celebes, Sulawesi Tengah, Indonesia, Asia
  • Type: Miller, G. S. & Hollister, N. 1921 Jun 30. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 34: 103.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Spectral tarsiers are found in primary and secondary rainforests, though they prefer secondary growth forests. This is likely due to the greater abundance of food items in secondary growth forests. Their habitat ranges from the lowland evergreen rainforest near sea level to the lower montane rainforest up to 1500 m. Spectral tarsiers have also been found in mangroves and scrub forest.

Range elevation: 0 to 1500 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest ; scrub forest ; mountains

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Tarsius tarsier sensu stricto has not been the subject of systematic study, but by analogy with wild tarsier populations studied at Tangkoko and with T. dentatus at Lore Lindu National Park, it is expected that this taxon is found in primary, secondary and mangrove forests, forest gardens, and a variety of other habitats of varying degrees of human disturbance that provide adequate shrubby cover. It shows extreme adaptations for vertical clinging and leaping (VCL) in the understory of suitable tropical habitats, often 2 meters or less from the ground. Nocturnal social primates, they likely live in small, monogamous or polygamous groupings of 2-6. The home range is believed to be less than one hectare. Its diet is 100% live animal prey, mostly insects with some small vertebrates.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Spectral tarsiers feeds exclusively on live animals. They primarily prey on flying insects such as moths, locusts, beetles and cicadas. They occasionally eat small vertebrates, such as lizards or bats. Spectral tarsiers listen with their independently moving ears to locate potential prey. Once a prey item is targeted, a tarsier ambushes its prey with a sudden lunge, grasps it with its long, slender fingers, and bites to kill it. The tarsier then returns to its perch to consume its prey. This form of ambush hunting requires excellent hand-eye coordination. Spectral tarsiers can collect their prey out of the air, on the ground, or off leaves and branches. Tarsiers can eat 10% of their own body weight every 24 hours, and they drink water several times throughout the night.

Spectral tarsiers appear to take advantage of the moonlight when foraging. This is an unusual behavior, as most small, nocturnal mammals exhibit lunar phobia as a predator avoidance mechanism. Tarsiers cope with this increased risk of predation by foraging in groups.

Animal Foods: birds; mammals; reptiles; insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods

Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats terrestrial vertebrates, Insectivore )

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Spectral tarsiers may influence populations of their insect prey. They host intestinal parasites such as hookworms and tapeworms. A related species, Tarsius bacanus, hosts various species of intestinal worms such as Moniliformes tarsii and Moniliformes echinoseroxi; spectral tarsiers may be susceptible to these parasites.

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • hookworms
  • tapeworms

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Potential predators of spectral tarsiers include arboreal snakes, civets, monitor lizards, owls and other raptors, and feral cats. If a predator, particularly a snake, is identified, they emit an alarm call. This initiates mobbing behavior, in which numerous tarsiers gather and approach the predator as a group, screaming, lunging, and even biting. Mob groups usually consist of adult males from neighboring groups, which is interesting as most spectral tarsier social groups only contain one territorial adult male. This grouping by neighboring males suggests some form of cooperation among males during predator mobbing. If spectral tarsiers spot a bird of prey such as an owl, they sound an alarm call and participate in avoidance mechanisms such as moving further away from the predator and increasing cryptic behaviors.

Known Predators:

  • arboreal snakes
  • civets
  • monitor lizards
  • owls
  • other raptors
  • feral cats

  • Gursky, S. 2005. Predator mobbing in Tarsius spectrum. International Journal of Primatology, 26(1): 207-221.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Species-specific vocalizations of spectral tarsiers include trills and twitters, alarm calls, duet songs, and family choruses. Twitters and trills are used to converse or to make their location known to other group members while foraging. Alarms calls serve as a warning system to others when a predator is spotted and also encourage predator mobbing. Duet songs and family choruses convey territoriality and function as a mate guarding mechanism. As morning approaches, the female of the duet pair initiates a song once she has returned to the family’s sleeping site. The male and female sing very different but equally high-pitched songs, which can be heard up to 100 m away. Species-specific vocal acoustics are used in conjunction with morphogenetics to assess classification of tarsiers.

Spectral tarsiers use their urine as well as secretions from the epigastric gland, ano-genital gland, and circum-oral gland to mark the boundaries of their territory. Males scent mark twice as frequently as females.

Physical contact appears to contribute to tarsier sociality, and members of the same group often rest and socialize while touching. Spectral tarsiers sit next to one another and intertwine tails and are know to snuggle.

Visual communication appears to be most effective when group members are in close contact with one another. They communicate by changes in facial musculature and body posture. Folded ears seem to convey uneasiness, and a crouched posture is taken when defensive. When aggressive, a tarsier stands on its hind feet with its mouth open.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: duets ; choruses ; scent marks

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

  • Burton, J., A. Nietsch. 2010. Geographical variation in duet songs of Sulawesi tarsiers: Evidence for new cryptic species in south and southeast Sulawesi. International Journal of Primatology, 31: 1123-1146.
  • Gursky-Doyen, S., J. Supriatna. 2010. Indonesian Primates. New York: Springer. Accessed November 08, 2011 at http://www.springerlink.com/content/n17q23/#section=651387&page=3&locus=48.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

One spectral tarsier was 10 years and 9 months of age at the conclusion of a mark and re-capture study, and the only signs of aging in this individual were gray/light hair on the face. Therefore, this probably does not represent the longest lifespan of spectral tarsiers in the wild.

A female tarsier greater than 5 years of age currently resides at the Singapore zoo. A closely related species, Tarsius bancanus has a lifespan of 17 years and 7 months in captivity. It is likely that T. tarsier has a similar lifespan in captivity.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
10 years.

  • Shekelle, M., A. Nietsch. 2008. Primates of the Oriental Night. West Java: West Java : Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Research Center for Biology.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Observations: Little is known about the longevity of these animals. It has been reported that they can live for 12 years (Lindenfors 2002), which is possible but has not been confirmed. One animal was still alive after 8.2 years in captivity (Richard Weigl 2005). Further studies are necessary to better estimate the maximum longevity of this species.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Joao Pedro de Magalhaes

Source: AnAge

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

The majority of tarsiers are monogamous; however, spectral tarsiers may practice facultative monogamy or polygyny. Monogamy appears to be the prevalent mating system in this species due to limited numbers of high-quality sleeping sites. Each individual female requires a high-quality sleeping site for herself and her young. Fig trees with large diameters are preferred but rare, which generally leads males and females to share sleeping sites and thus to form monogamous pairs.

Polygynous groups occur 19% of the time. Monogamous groups often consist of two or three females with one reproducing female and one territorial male, while polygynous groups consist of six or more individuals with multiple reproducing females and a single male. The presence of large testes in T. tarsier suggests that polygyny is fairly common, as large testes have been related to promiscuous mating systems.

Mating System: monogamous ; polygynous

Spectral tarsiers breed twice a year, and copulation occurs during either May or November. The gestation period is approximately 6 months, and births also usually occur during May or November. Females give birth to a single offspring, which is born fully furred and with its eyes open. Newborns are precocial and are able to climb at just one day of age. Among mammals, tarsier offspring are the largest relative to the mother's body mass. Newborns weigh on average 23.7 g, nearly 22% of the mother's body mass. A large proportion their weight is invested in the brain mass, eyes, and cranium.

Lactation generally lasts up to 80 days. Weaning occurs between 4 and 10 weeks of age, and independence occurs directly after weaning as offspring are capable of hunting on their own. Spectral tarsiers reach sexual maturity at 17 months of age. Females possess a bicornuate uterus and haemochorial placenta.

Breeding interval: Spectral tarsiers breed twice yearly.

Breeding season: Copulation May and November

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average gestation period: 6 months.

Range weaning age: 21 to 80 days.

Range time to independence: 4 to 12 weeks.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 17 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 17 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Young spectral tarsiers are precocial and receive only maternal care. Mothers pick up and carry their infants by mouth for the first 3 weeks and cache them trees while they forage. Offspring are left alone for an average of 27 minutes at a time, and then they are moved to new locations. Mothers generally remain within 4 m of their young when foraging. Caching young in trees reduces the energetic cost of foraging, as carrying offspring is costly and offspring can weigh up to one third of the mother’s weight. Mothers sling offspring older than 3 weeks of age under their bellies while leaping and moving from tree to tree.

Parental Investment: precocial ; female parental care ; pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); post-independence association with parents

  • Gursky, S. 2002. The behavioral ecology of the Spectral tarsier, Tarsius spectrum. Evolutionary Anthropology, 11: 226-234.
  • Gursky, S. 2010. Dispersal Patterns in Tarsius spectrum. International Journal of Primatology, 31: 117-131.
  • Gursky-Doyen, S. 2010. Infraspecific variation in the mating system of Spectral Tarsiers. International Journal of Primatology, 31: 1161-1173.
  • MacDonald, D. 2006. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File.
  • Napier, J., P. Napier. 1985. The Natural History of the Primates. Great Britain: MIT Press.
  • Roberts, M. 1994. Growth, development, and parental care in the western tarsier (Tarsius bancanus) in captivity: evidence for a “slow” life-history and non-monogamous mating system. International Journal of Primatology, 15: 1-28.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

Spectral tarsiers are currently abundant on the island of Sulawesi, particularly among the northern peninsula with a density ranging from 156 to 800 individuals per square kilometer. However, this species is still considered vulnerable due to habitat destruction caused by logging. Logging reduces tarsier densities through the destruction of preferred sleeping sites such as strangler fig trees. Strangler figs are removed from human-utilized forests because they are seen as a threat to other commercially valuable trees.

CITES: appendix ii

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: vulnerable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2c

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Shekelle, M. & Salim, A.

Reviewer/s
Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Based on habitat loss alone, this species is considered Vulnerable in that at least 30% of the habitat has been converted in the past 20 years (approximately 3 generations). From 1990 to 2000, about 15-26% of the forest habitat on the island was converted to agriculture (A. Salim pers. comm.), and since that time at least an additional 10% has been lost. This listing is further justified by the fact that the taxon will be subdivided in the future and that some of the populations will have much greater threats than others.

T. tarsier, sensu lato, has an estimated extent of occurrence of 149,136 km2. Within this are 1,782 km2 of old growth forest and 33,980 km2 of good habitat, yielding an estimate of 35,852 km2 of tarsier habitat that is considered good or better. Additionally, there are 27,528 km2 of fair habitat. This produces an estimate of 63,380 km2 of potentially usable tarsier habitat. Assessed in the broad sense, T. tarsier is easily the least endangered tarsier found in Wallacea. On the other hand, T. tarsier, sensu stricto is sympatric with Macaca maura, and by analogy is likely to be highly threatened. Thus, under the current taxonomy T. tarsier should be considered to have a conservation status of no greater than Vulnerable and possibly as little as Least Concern, but in the more restricted sense it would likely be a candidate for Critically Endangered. This example illustrates the urgent need for more taxonomic work on Sulawesian tarsiers. The problem is not trivial, since at least 17 potentially new taxa have been discovered within the population of tarsiers that Niemitz (1984) classified as a single subspecies. This is particularly true since, owing to the conservation threats to some of the smaller populations with restricted ranges, there is the possibility that they may go extinct before they have even been named. This is turn argues in favor of the most conservative conservation estimate that can be justified for T. tarsier.

History
  • 1996
    Data Deficient
  • 1994
    Insufficiently Known
    (Groombridge 1994)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
Within T. tarsier, sensu lato, the best studied population comes from Tangkoko, which is at the extreme northeast peninsula of Sulawesi, whereas Makassar, the type locality of T. tarsier sensu stricto, is at the extreme southwestern peninsula, and has not been the subject of systematic study. Population density estimates at Tangkoko are 70/km2 (MacKinnon and MacKinnon 1980) and 156/km2 (Gursky 1997). Merker (2003) estimated population densities for T. dentatus in a variety of pristine and human disturbed habitats near Kamarora, on the edge of Lore Lindu National Park. The values he calculated were 270/km2 in pristine habitat, 190/km2 for slightly disturbed, 130/km2 for moderate disturbance, and 45/km2 in heavily disturbed habitat.

Population Trend
Decreasing
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
Major threats include habitat loss due to agriculture, illegal logging, mining of limestone for cement manufacture, agricultural pesticides, and predation by domestic animals (dogs and cats). Some animals are entering the pet trade (particularly from North Sulawesi, around Tankoko). Although there has been extensive loss of habitat, this species, however, has demonstrated some tolerance to forest conversion. Although seemingly among the least threatened of tarsiers owing to its relatively wide distribution, the possible existence of undescribed cryptic species makes it likely that some populations are more threatened than others. This species should be reassessed upon further taxonomic revision.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Tarsiers are protected by international treaties, including CITES Appendix II, as well as by national law. Many portions of the range of this taxon are within conservation areas, but there needs to be improved management of these areas to ensure the continued survival of the species. Public education to overcome the misconception that tarsiers are crop pests would be a step forward in improving conservation measures. Indeed, the species might actually be beneficial to crops, as they eat, and may even have a dietary preference for, some of the real crop pests such as large grasshoppers.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Spectral tarsiers kept as pets frequently host parasites, such as intestinal worms, that can be transmitted to humans. Tarsiers do not survive well as pets due to their high energetic diet requirements.

Negative Impacts: injures humans (carries human disease)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Tarsius tarsier is important to evolutionary biologists and taxonomists as it is thought to be the most primitive of the tarsiers; therefore it can be studied to better understand primate evolution.

Spectral tarsiers are primarily insectivorous, and may aid in the mitigation of insect pest populations. Tarsiers also draw tourists to the Indonesian islands and are beneficial to humans financially as a form of ecotourism. Tarsiers are occasionally kept as pets, though they do not survive well.

Positive Impacts: pet trade ; ecotourism ; research and education; controls pest population

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Spectral tarsier

The spectral tarsier (Tarsius tarsier) is a species of tarsier found in Indonesia. It is apparently less specialized than the Philippine tarsier or Horsfield's tarsier; for example, it lacks adhesive toes. It is the type species for the Tarsius genus. While its range used to include both the population on the island of Selayar as well as on nearby southwestern Sulawesi, the latter populations has been removed to a separate species, Tarsius fuscus.[3]

When considered to include Tarsius fuscus in measurements females weigh between 102 and 114 grams (3.6 and 4.0 oz) while males are 118 to 130 grams (4.2 to 4.6 oz). It has a head-body length of 9.5 to 14 centimetres (3.7 to 5.5 in) and its tail length ranges from 20 to 26 centimetres (7.9 to 10 in). The average lifespan in the wild is thought to be 10 years, however in captivity the closely related Horsfield's tarsier can live up to 17 years and it is thought the spectral tarsier may have a similar longevity.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 128. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Shekelle, M. & Salim, A. (2008). Tarsius tarsier. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  3. ^ Groves, C.; Shekelle, M. (2010). "The genera and species of Tarsiidae". International Journal of Primatology 31 (6): 1071–1082. doi:10.1007/s10764-010-9443-1.  edit
  4. ^ Mogk, K. (2012). "Tarsius tarsier". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 2013-05-02. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!