Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Recorded from the southwestern USA (Arizona, New Mexico, SW Texas) and extending into northern Mexico in scattered localities in Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León and NE Sonora.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Pinus flexilis var. reflexa Engelm.:
United States (North America)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

Pinus flexilis var. reflexa is a conifer tree of subalpine habitats on the highest mountains within its range. Occurs between 1,900 and 3,000 m asl. The species is one of several in the genus Pinus of western North America that can withstand extreme conditions of climate on bare rock or scree without any other vegetation cover. On these sites it occurs either alone or with Pinus aristata in the SE and P. longaeva in the SW. The seeds, which only have rudimentary wings, are mostly dispersed by rodents and birds.


Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Schoettle, A. & Stritch, L.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P. & Farjon, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
Pinus flexilis var. reflexa is a rare variety limited to five known locations with a small area of occupancy less than 2,000 km2.There is no evidence of continuing decline at present hence this variety is assessed as Near Threatened (almost qualifies as threatened under criterion B2ab(iii,v)). Regular monitoring is required as any of the threats impacting the typical variety could very quickly have an adverse impact on this variety and it may then qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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Population

Population
This taxon is much more scattered than var. flexilis which occurs to the north of it, and is restricted to the highest altitudes of the mountains in northern Mexico and the southwest of the USA. Populations are accordingly disjunct and often small.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats

White Pine Blister Rust (WPBR) caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola does not appear to have reached the isolated subpopulations of this variety. Likewise, no epidemics of Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) have been reported yet. However, as soon as either of these threats starts to impact this variety, it will quickly qualify for a more threatened category. The combination of WPBR with the MPB epidemic compromises the regeneration cycle of the pine populations and reduces their resilience to recover from this and any other disturbances. Extirpation of subpopulations is probable. See the species account for full details on the impacts of these two threats.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The variety is probably present in some protected areas. See the species account for details on the ongoing research into the threats. The population of this variety should be regularly monitored to detect the presence of WPBR or MPB.
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