This subspecies is endemic to Turkey. It is found in northwest and western Anatolia near to the Aegean Sea where it occurs in two disjunct locations: Balikesir; Kaz-Daghi (Mt. Ida .), Bursa; Ulu-Dagh (Mt. Olympus of Bithynia). The AOO of Kaz-Daghi is 36 km2 comprising a number of small isolated localities ranging in size from 1.2 to 24 km2 (Kaya 2008). The AOO of the Mt Olympus location is no more than the 128 km2 area of the Ulu-Dagh National Park.
Habitat and Ecology
Habitat and Ecology
Grows in mixed forests with Quercus
spp., Pinus nigra
and Fagus orientalis
at an altitudinal range of between 750-1,450 m. on north-facing slopes (Kay, 2005) or in pure stands (Ãzel and Simsar 2009).
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category Year Assessed
Endangered Red List Criteria
Knees, S. & Gardner, M. Reviewer/s
Thomas, P. & Farjon, A. Contributor/s Justification
The total area of occupancy (AOO) for Abies nordmanniana
is estimated to be ca
. Although there are no specific figures for the Abies
forests in Ulu-Dagh National Park (Mt. Olympus), the park covers an area of 128 km2
and this figure is used as an estimate. The AOO of Kaz-Daghi is 36 km2
(Kaya 2008). There are numerous documented threats to the Kaz-Daghi subpopulation including loss of mature individuals due to local logging, acid rain and degradation to the habitat due to recreational activities and fire (Ãzel and Simser 2009, Satil 2009). Consequently this taxon is assessed as Endangered.
A fragmented population, the most disjunct being the western subpopulation in the Kaz Dagi Mountains on Mt. Ida which occurs close to the Aegean Sea. The two subpopulations are ca 250 km apart Population Trend
The Mt. Ida subpopulation has suffered from illegal logging by local villagers (Ãzel and Simser 2009). There is also degradation of the habitat caused by the density of visitor numbers to the National Park, especially as a result of the annual Sarikiz Festival which is held on the summit in August; the negative effects are caused through a lack of suitable facilities for large numbers of visitors (Satil 2009). Sulphur Dioxide (S02
) from a nearby power plant is also causing noticeable damage; acid rain is retarding growth of the Abies
and in extreme cases it is causing the death of the forest (Satil 2009). Fire is also another serious threat to this subpopulation. Although there is no documented evidence of damage to the Mt. Olympus location, it is highly likely that there will be a degree of habitat degradation as a result of high visitor numbers; the summit of the mountain is easily accessible by vehicle.
The smaller locations are afforded protection in the Kazadagi National Park (Kaya et al. 1997) and the Ulu-Dagh National Park. It is included in the priority species list to be conserved in the National Plan for in-situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity in Turkey (Kaya et al. 1997). Gene Management Zones (GMZ) have been established for Abies nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani (Ozturk 2010)
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