Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology/Natural History: Lophogastrids were formerly thought to be a type of mysid. In regions where this species is common, males do not reach the maximum size. After the instar at which the species reaches sexual maturity (at about 15 cm total length), the females undergo a growth spurt and the males seem to disappear from the population. This implies that the females may eat the males after copulation. Very large males seem to be found mainly in areas where the species is scarce and the male may not have encountered and bred with a female. While brooding eggs, the female sinks down to around 1000-1200 m depth. She carries the eggs and larvae for about 1.5 years, during which time she loses much organic body mass and is apparently not feeding (Childress and Price, 1983). The female's eggs account for 61% of the energy she has accumulated over her lifetime. Another 13% is used during brooding of her young, 6% in cast exoskeletons, and she only retains 20% of her original total energy content after brooding (but her water content is very high). The species reproduces only once, and the female dies shortly after release of the larvae. The species has 13 instars. Intermolt interval varies from 166 to 253 days, depending on the size (Childress and Price, 1978.

This species lives permanently below the euphotic zone. Although its water content increases in winter, suggesting fluctuations in food availability, its O:N ratio changes little indicating that its lipid levels remain high and it is not starving (Hiller-Adams and Childress, 1983). Both its metabolic rate and ammonia excretion decrease with starvation (Hiller-Adams and Childress 1983, Quetin et al., 1980).

Neognathophausia ingens swims primarily with the pleopods, with some participation by the thoracic exopods (Hessler, 1985). Their activity levels are little affected by pressure (Quetin and Childress, 1980). The species swims constantly and has a relatively high drag compared to fish (Cowles et al., 1985), but swims at a speed which minimizes energy losses due to drag (Cowles and Childress, 1988).

Gnathophausia means "light-jaw". This species has a gland on its second maxillae (mouthparts) from which it spews a brilliantly luminescent cloud into the water when disturbed. Luminescence seems to be a function of diet, since animals maintained on non-luminescent food in the laboratory gradually lose their ability to luminesce, while if luminescent food is restored they can regain their luminescence (Frank et al., 1984).

This species often lives in oxygen minimum layers, yet its metabolism is entirely aerobic (Childress 1968, 1969, 1971, Cowles et al., 1991). To facilitate oxygen diffusion, it maintains a high rate of oxygen flow over its gills and extracts a very high percentage of the available oxygen (Childress, 1971). Its low rate of aerobic metabolism (Childress, 1971, Cowles, 1987, Cowles et al., 1991) help keep it from building up oxygen debt. It has greater gill surface area than do most crustaceans and fishes (Belman and Childress, 1976). The oxygen diffusion distance across the gills is 1.5 to 2.5 microns, comparable to that found in many fishes (Belman and Childress, 1976). It maintains relatively high rates of blood flow via large circulatory system components. Its heart rate is similar to that of other similarly-sized crustaceans, and the heart slows as oxygen limitation is reached (Belman and Childress, 1976). It appears that much of the oxygen in the blood is carried by hemocyanin, which has a high oxygen affinity and cooperativity and a large Bohr shift (Sanders and Childress, 1990). Species which live in areas with very low oxygen levels, such as off California, are able to live aerobically at lower oxygen levels than are those from higher oxygen levels such as Hawaii (Cowles et al., 1991).

Predators include the Melanostominid fish Echiostoma barbatum (Sutton and Hopkins, 1996), the Macrourid fish Macrouronus novaezelandiae (Clark, 1985), dwarf sperm whale (Cardona-Maldonado and Mignucci-Giannoni (1999), the Antillean beaked whale (Debrot, 1998), in which it comprised 41% of the stomach contents of a beached individual, and Cuvier's beaked whale (Palacios, 2003).

The rostrum and spines of small individuals are relatively longer than in large individuals. This led to small individuals originally having been named a separate species, Gnathophausia calcarata.

Gnathophausia ingens is sometimes parasitized by an ellobiopsid flagellate protozoan, Amallocystis fascitus, which forms a cluster of white filaments on the ventral side of the anterior abdominal segment. The parasite seems to be associated with the main nerve ganglion in this segment, and is associated with hypertrophy of the ganglion. It also retards sexual maturation such as retarded development of oostegites in females and feminizing changes in males.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 2.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

© Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory

Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Lophogastrids are bathypelagic, shrimplike crustaceans which differ from true shrimp in that their carapace overhangs but is not actually connected to the posterior thoracic segments. They are not decapods as shrimp are, and, for example, have only one set of maxillipeds instead of 3 and 7 pairs of pereopods instead of 5. The pleopods, with which they swim (see photo above), are well developed. They have large thoracic gills but no statocysts. As a Peracaridan, female Lophogastrids have long thoracic endopods (called oostegites) which are modified into a basket for carrying eggs and larvae (photo). This species is the largest pelagic crustacean. Maximum length up to 35 cm (for a large female captured in the eastern tropical Pacific--Clarke, 1961). Most are less than 18 cm long.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 2.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

© Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory

Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Geographical Range: Worldwide in tropical and temperate seas, most common in tropical and subtropical zones (mainly fron 40 degrees N to 40 degrees S). Common bathypelagically off California and West Africa. Less common in the eastern tropical Pacific and eastern tropical Atlantic than in the equatorial Indian Ocean, probably because of the extremely low oxygen levels in the eastern tropical Pacific at the depths G. ingens inhabits.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 2.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

© Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory

Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Look Alikes

How to Distinguish from Similar Species: The rostrum is shorter than that of Gnathophausia zoea and Neognathophausia gigas and is indistinctly denticulate. Has reduced or no supra-orbital spines. The spines at the posterolateral margin of the carapace are also shorter than those of Gnathophausia zoea. Unlike Gnathophausia gracilis, this species does not have prominent dorsal spines on the abdominal segments. Unlike Neognathophausia gigas, both the anterior and the posterior lobe of the pleural plates are spiniform.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 2.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

© Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory

Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 80 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 66 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 3124
  Temperature range (°C): 0.776 - 15.059
  Nitrate (umol/L): 5.938 - 42.866
  Salinity (PPS): 33.830 - 35.977
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.510 - 7.789
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.485 - 3.169
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.685 - 120.197

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 3124

Temperature range (°C): 0.776 - 15.059

Nitrate (umol/L): 5.938 - 42.866

Salinity (PPS): 33.830 - 35.977

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.510 - 7.789

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.485 - 3.169

Silicate (umol/l): 2.685 - 120.197
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth Range: Usually around 500-900 m (brooding females often around 1200 m). Can be found down to 4000 m. Juveniles are usually in water from 5 to 8 degrees C.

Habitat: Bathypelagic

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 2.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

© Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory

Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Neognathophausia ingens

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNTGATCAGGTATAATTGGTACTTCTTTAAGAATATTAATTCGTATTGAATTAGGGCATCCTGGTGGATTAATTGGTAATGATCAAGTATATAATAGGATTGTTACGGCTCATGCTTTTGTTATAATTTTTTTTATAGTAATACCTATTATAATTGGTGGTTTTGGAAATTGGTTAATACCTTTAATATTAGGTGCTCCTGATATAGCTTTTCCTCGTTTAAATAATTTTAGGTTTTGATTATTACCTCCTTCTTTAATTTTGCTTATTTCAAGAAGGTTTTTAGGGAGGGGGGTAGGTACTGGGTGAACTGTTTATCCTCCTTTATCTAGAGTTGGANNNCATATAGGAGTTTCAGTGGATTTAGCTATTTTTTCTCTTCATTTAGCTGGAGCTTCTTCAATTTTAGGGGCTGTAAATTTTATTACTACATTTTATAATGTTCATTGTGGAGATATGAAAATAGATCAAAAGCCTTTATTTGTATGATCAATTTTTATTACTGTGGTTTTGTTGCTTATTTCTCTTCCTGTTCTTGCTGGTGCTATTACTATATTATTAACTGATCGTAATTTAAATACTGTATTTTTTGATCCAGCTGGGGGAGGTGATCCTATTTTATATCAACATTTATTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Neognathophausia ingens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Gnathophausia ingens

Gnathophausia ingens, the giant red mysid, is a species of lophogastrid crustacean with a pan-tropical distribution.[2] The adults may reach 350 millimetres (14 in) long, including the rostrum.[2] Females may brood their young for up to 530 days.[3] Brooding females live between 900 and 1,400 m (3,000 and 4,600 ft) in the eastern Pacific Ocean off California. They do not feed during this time.[4] When they feed, they prey on smaller crustaceans.[5]

References

  1. ^ a b Kenneth Meland & Jan Mees (2012). "Gnathophausia ingens (Dohrn, 1870)". In J. Mees & K. Meland. World List of Lophogastrida, Stygiomysida and Mysida. World Register of Marine Species. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=119929. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  2. ^ a b Linda Haithcock Pequegnat (1965). "The bathypelagic mysid Gnathophausia (Crustacea) and its distribution in the eastern Pacific Ocean". Pacific Science 19 (4): 399–421. hdl:10125/7299. 
  3. ^ J. J. Childress & M. H. Price (1978). "Growth rate of the bathypelagic crustacean Gnathophausia ingens (Mysidacea: Lophogastridae). I. Dimensional growth and population structure". Marine Biology 50 (1): 47–62. doi:10.1007/BF00390541. 
  4. ^ J. J. Childress & M. H. Price (1983). "Growth rate of the bathypelagic crustacean Gnathophausia ingens (Mysidacea: Lophogastridae) II. Accumulation of material and energy". Marine Biology 76 (2): 165–177. doi:10.1007/BF00392733/. 
  5. ^ "Giant red mysid". Monterey Bay Aquarium. http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/animals/AnimalDetails.aspx?enc=Z5SIVkZ+n+XOmL/K7IUhGw==. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!