- Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, B.L. Sullivan, C. L. Wood, and D. Roberson. 2012. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.7. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/downloadable-clements-checklist
- Gordon, D. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity. Volume One: Kingdom Animalia. 584 pp http://www.marinespecies.org/porifera/porifera.php?p=sourcedetails&id=145244
Habitat and Ecology
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 1994Not Recognized
- 1988Not Recognized
ACAP Annex 1. All populations are monitored periodically. Annual population data from Taiaroa Head is the most complete for any seabird species in New Zealand7. Predator control at Taiaroa Head during the breeding season results in comparatively high mean annual productivity1 (no predators recorded on Chatham Island colonies). Animal husbandry techniques have been developed from work with this colony. Feral cattle, rabbits and mice have been eradicated from Enderby Island7. Taiaroa Head and Enderby Island are nature reserves. Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue to census Chatham populations annually using aerial photography. Continue intensive management of Taiaroa Head colony. Band further cohorts of chicks from all colonies. Obtain legal protection for Forty-Fours and Sisters Islands, and continued access for research7.
Northern Royal Albatross
The Northern Royal Albatross or Toroa, Diomedea sanfordi, is a large seabird from the albatross family. It was split from the closely related Southern Royal Albatross as recently as 1998, though not all scientists support that conclusion and consider both of them to be subspecies of the Royal Albatross.
Albatrosses belong to Diomedeidae family and come from the Procellariiformes order, along with shearwaters, fulmars, storm petrels, and diving petrels. They share certain identifying features. First, they have nasal passages that attach to the upper bill called naricorns. Although the nostrils on the Albatross are on the sides of the bill. The bills of Procellariiformes are also unique in that they are split into between 7 and 9 horny plates. Finally, they produce a stomach oil made up of wax esters and triglycerides that is stored in the proventriculus. This is used against predators as well as an energy rich food source for chicks and for the adults during their long flights.
The Northern Royal Albatross is typically about 115 cm (45 in), weighs 6.2–8.2 kg (14–18 lb) and has a wingspan from 270–305 cm (110–120 in). The juvenile has a white head, neck, upper mantle, rump, and underparts. There is dark speckling on the crown and rump. Its lower mantle and back are white with more black speckling than the crown, and it has dark black-brown upper wings with white flecks on its covert. Its tail is white with a black-brown tip, as are its underwings. There is a black ban behind the leading edge of its wings between the carpal joint and the tip. As they age, its head, back, rump, tail, and scapular region whiten. All ages have a pink bill with a black cutting edge on the upper mandible, along with flesh colored legs. The Northern Royal Albatross can be distinguished from the Southern at sea by its upper wings, the plumage of which are all dark compared to the large areas of white on the Southern. The two species also differ in behavior.
They will perform a very extensive mutual or group display, sometimes in the air or on the water. Once they form a bond, the displays lose extravagance. Breeding starts at 8 years. They nest biennially, and will build their nests on flat summits of the islands that they frequent. They prefer to be in grass or herbs, and their nest is a low mound of vegetation, mud, and feathers. A single egg is laid, in October or November, in a nest which takes both parents around 80 days to incubate. The chick is brooded for a month, and is ready to fledge after around 240 days. Their colonies are denser than those of any other great albatross.
|Chatham Islands||6,500-7,000 pair||1998||Declining|
|Taiaroa Head, South Island||25 pair||1998||Declining|
Northern Royal Albatrosses nest on the Chatham Islands (Forty-fours Island, Big Sister Island, and Little Sister Island), Enderby Island in the Auckland Islands, and at Taiaroa Head on the Otago Peninsula, New Zealand. The Taiaroa Head colony is the only albatross colony of any species found on a human-inhabited mainland. When they are not breeding Northern Royal Albatrosses undertake circumpolar flights in the southern oceans, and in particular like the Humboldt Current and the Patagonian Shelf.
Northern Royal Albatrosses are listed as an endangered species by the IUCN, and they have an occurrence range of 64,300,000 km2 (24,800,000 sq mi), with a breeding range of 8 km2 (3.1 sq mi). 5,200 to 5,800 pairs breed on the Chatham Islands annually along with 25 pairs at Taiaroa Head and 2 pairs at Enderby Island, for an estimated total of 17,000 birds, although this is a 1991 estimate. Their main breeding grounds on the Chatham Islands have been badly damaged by a series of intense storms and the resulting lack of nesting material has lowered their breeding success. Chicks and eggs of birds breeding on the South Island have also been preyed upon by introduced species, such as cats, bottle flies, and stoats. Finally, longline fishing is the biggest threat to this bird, even though it has been reduced.
To help in the survival of this species, bird banding is underway, Taiaroa Head has predator control in effect during breeding season, as well as the Chatham Islands having no predators. Enderby Island and Taiaroa Head are nature preserves, and the Department of Conservation eradicated feral cattle, rabbits and mice from Enderby Island by 1993.
Thanks to the efforts of L. E. Richdale, the colony on Taiaroa Head was protected by 1950. 1972 saw the first formal public viewing of their breeding area, and by 2001 more than 100,000 people visit annually to watch this species.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Diomedea sanfordi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/160030005. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
- Brands, S. (2008)
- Robertson, C. J. R. (2003)
- BirdLife International (2008)(a)
- Clements, J. (2007)
- Gotch, A. F. (1995)
- Double, M. C. (2003)
- Veitch, C. R., et al. (2002)
- BirdLife International (2008(a)). "Northern Royal Albatross - BirdLife Species Factsheet". Data Zone. http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=30005&m=1. Retrieved 18 Feb 2009.
- Brands, Sheila (Aug 14 2008). "Systema Naturae 2000 / Systema Naturae 2000 / Classification - Diomedea (Diomedea) epomophora -". Project: The Taxonomicon. http://www.taxonomy.nl/Main/Classification/51479.htm. Retrieved 18 Feb 2009.
- Brooke, M. (2004) "Procellariidae" Albatrosses And Petrels Across The World Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-850125-0
- Clements, James (2007). The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World (6 ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4501-9.
- Double, M. C. (2003). "Procellariiformes (Tubenosed Seabirds)". In Hutchins, Michael; Jackson, Jerome A.; Bock, Walter J. et al.. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. 8. Birds I Tinamous and Ratites to Hoatzins. Joseph E. Trumpey, Chief Scientific Illustrator (2 ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. pp. 107–111. ISBN 0-7876-5784-0.
- Gotch, A. F. (1995) . "Albatrosses, Fulmars, Shearwaters, and Petrels". Latin Names Explained A Guide to the Scientific Classifications of Reptiles, Birds & Mammals. New York, NY: Facts on File. p. 190. ISBN 0-8160-3377-3.
- Robertson, C. J. R. (2003). "Albatrosses (Diomedeidae)". In Hutchins, Michael; Jackson, Jerome A.; Bock, Walter J. et al.. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. 8. Birds I Tinamous and Ratites to Hoatzins. Joseph E. Trumpey, Chief Scientific Illustrator (2 ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. p. 118. ISBN 0-7876-5784-0.
- Veitch, C. R.; Clout, M. N.. "Eradication of rabbits and mice from subantarctic Enderby and Rose Islands". Turning the tide : the eradication of invasive species, proceedings of the International conference on eradication of island invasives. Occasional papers of the IUCN Species Survival Commission 028: 319–320. ISBN 2-8317-0682-3.
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