Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Endemic to China: NW Hubei (Shijiagou, circa 150 mature trees), S Gansu (Jiaorao village, six trees). In addition to these two locations three isolated trees with atypical cones are known from Henan (Neixiang, Huangboayuan nature reserve) while in southern Shaanxi (Huangboyuan) there are another two trees that also have atypical cones. There is also a single tree, also with atypical cones known from Laoxiancheng. It may also occur in Chongqing in the Daba Shan. The estimated area of occupancy of the confirmed stands is less than 10 km2 and there are two locations. The population is considered severely fragmented. The past distribution of this species has been confused with that of P. wilsonii and P. asperata so that it is difficult to be precise about the recent natural distribution.
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S Gansu, SW Henan (Neixiang Xian), W Hubei, S Shaanxi, NE Shanxi (Wutai Shan), Sichuan
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 15 m tall; trunk to 50 cm d.b.h.; bark gray, scaly, flaking; crown broadly conical; branchlets initially pale yellow or with a little brown, turning gray or yellow-gray in 2nd and 3rd years, finally gray or dark gray, stout, glabrous; winter buds globose, slightly resinous, scales purplish brown, appressed at base and apex of branchlets. Leaves spreading radially, curved and directed forward on upper side of branchlets, spreading and ascending on lower side, quadrangular-linear, longitudinally rhombic in cross section, 1.5-2.5 cm × ca. 2 mm, stomatal lines 4-7 along each surface, apex acute. Seed cones green, maturing pale brown or brown, rarely yellow-green, oblong- or ovoid-cylindric, 8-14 × 5-6.5 cm. Seed scales at middle of cones rhombic-ovate, ca. 2.7 × 2.7-3 cm, distal margin thinner, denticulate or almost entire, apex broadly rounded or obtuse. Seeds obovoid, 5-6 × ca. 3.5 mm; wing obovate, ca. 1 cm. Pollination May, seed maturity Sep-Oct.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Picea neoveitchii occurs on middle to lower mountain slopes on cliffs. Associated species include Pinus armandii above 1,800 m, Picea asperata, Tsuga chinensis and Abies chensiensis, with Rhus vernaciflua, Betula luminifera and B. insignis, Sorbus folgneri. Rainfall ranges from 700—900 mm per annum. Trees only start coning after 40 years.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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* Scattered on mountain slopes and in river basins, or on rocky talus; 1300-2000 m.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Picea neoveitchii

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Picea neoveitchii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
CR
Critically Endangered

Red List Criteria
B2ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(ii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Zhang, D, Katsuki, T. & Rushforth, K.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P. & Farjon, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
The main subpopulation at Shijiagou has a good number of seedlings but is not protected and is vulnerable to fire and clearance for agriculture. The Gansu subpopulation of six trees, two of which are 350 years old, has no regeneration and the trees occur in scattered heavily farmed situations. This very restricted occurrence with inferred evidence of continuing decline coupled with a small population size where the more than 90% of the individuals occur in one subpopulation justifies an assessment of Critically Endangered under both the B and C criteria.

History
  • 1998
    Endangered
  • 1997
    Vulnerable
    (Walter and Gillett 1998)
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In 2012, Picea neoveitchii was included among the world's 100 most threatened species in a report by the IUCN Species Survival Commission and the Zoological Society of London.

(Baillie & Butcher 2012; Harvey 2012)

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Population

Population
There are 150 mature trees at Shijiagou, Hubei (where there are seedlings making a total population of circa 800 trees) and at Jiaorao village, Gansu there are another six mature trees (two of which are ca. 350 years old). Other locations in Shaanxi and Henan contain a total of six mature trees that are not typical and may represent hybrids with other Picea. These locations are excluded from this assessment. Other possible stands are excluded as the evidence strongly indicates that they have been planted.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Both the area of occupancy and extent of occurrence declined significantly between 1950 and 1990 as many stands were clear-cut for timber. Fragmentation of remaining stands and the continued conversion of some areas for agriculture mean that the decline is continuing (Zhang et al. 2006)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Picea neoveitchii is listed as a First Class Protected Species under National Law. It has been the focus of several conservation projects over the last decade that have surveyed the remaining populations, located cultivated stands and made ex situ collections.
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Wikipedia

Picea neoveitchii

Picea neoveitchii (Chinese: 大果青扦) is a species of conifer in the Pinaceae family. It is found only in China. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Picea neoveitchii is an endemic spruce species of central China. Several scattered communities and individuals can be found growing on the southern slopes of Qinling Mountains in Baotian Man Nature Preserve, Henan province between 1240 and 2020 meters elevation. This spruce species is especially vulnerable to extinction due to the high fragmentation of its natural habitat from human disturbance. Current conservation efforts are focused on preserving natural habitats, managing invasive species to reduce competition, and prohibiting timber harvest. Conservation researchers emphasize the urgent need for a restoration project which reintroduces seedlings across the tree's original range (within protected forest areas), and protects wild communities and individuals. (Zhang et al. 2006).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zhang, D, Katsuki, T. & Rushforth, K. (2010). "Picea neoveitchii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 3.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2013-11-10. 

Source[edit]

  • Zhang Deshun, Kim Yongshik, Mike Maunder, and Li Xiufen. 2006. The Conservation Status and Conservation Strategy of Picea neoveitchii. Chinese Journal of Population, Resources and Environment, 4(3): 58-64.
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Notes

Comments

An endangered species much in need of protection. The timber is used for construction, poles, furniture, and wood pulp.
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