Endemic to Mexico: S Zacatecas (Sierra de Morones near Juchipila). A second location, La Muralla in Durango, has recently been reported (Gonzalez-Elizondo et al. 2011). It was discovered in December 2010. The extent of occurrence is estimated to be about 376 km2 with an actual area of occupancy estimated to be about 35 km2.
Catalog Number: US 2518546
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. Rzedowski
Year Collected: 1964
Locality: Cerro de Pinones, 4 km. W of Pueblo Viejo., Juchipila, Zacatecas, Mexico, North America
Elevation (m): 2000 to 2000
- Isotype: Rzedowski, J. 1964. Ciencia (Mexico). 23: 17.
Habitat and Ecology
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Pinus maximartinezii
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus maximartinezii
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
Based on current knowledge, both the extent of occurrence (376 km2) and the area of occupancy (35 km2) are within the thresholds for Endangered. Two disjunct locations are known although it is possible that other subpopulations exist in the intervening areas. A recent decline in at least the quality of habitat has been observed in the main subpopulation in Zacatecas due to grazing and erosion. Discrepancies between the published counts for the Sierra de Morones subpopulation (2,000-2,500 mature individuals over 400 ha - Ledig 1999 and 60,548 'individuals' over 3,500 ha - Lara Rodriguez 1997) reflect different sampling strategies. The total size of the population is likely to be more than 10,000 mature individuals. On the basis of this information Pinus maximartinezii is assessed as Endangered under the B criterion.
- 1998Endangered (EN)
- 1998Endangered (E)
The population in the Sierra de Morones has ca. 2,000-2,500 mature individuals scattered on ridges and E-facing slopes, covering approximately 400 ha (Ledig et al. 1999). There is regeneration, but it is under threat from seed collecting, roaming cattle and fire. On genetic grounds, Ledig et al. (1999) concluded that the species had gone through an extreme bottleneck perhaps four to five generations ago, which is less than 1,000 years in this species." Fires of more recent times have destroyed parts of the population, so in IUCN terms of three generations, here estimated to be around 150 years, there has probably been a decline in number of mature individuals.
In another attempt at counting trees, the vastly larger figure of 60,548 individuals was reported (Lara Rodriguez 1997). This count presumably included all trees and was conducted by sampling over a larger area within the area of occupancy (AOO) in Zacatecas. The AOO was estimated to be 3,500 ha.The new subpopulation in Durango has in excess of 900 mature trees with an AOO of ca. 110 ha (Gonzalez-Elizondo et al. 2011).
Pinus maximartinezii, called Martinez pinyon or big-cone pinyon, is a pine in the pinyon pine group, native to central Mexico. The range is highly localised, confined to a small area of the southern Sierra Madre Occidental in southern Zacatecas. It occurs at moderate altitudes, from 1800-2400 m and 21° North latitude, in warm and temperate, dry climate conditions.
It is a small tree, reaching 5-15 m tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 50 cm. The bark is brown, thick and fissured at the base of the trunk. The leaves ('needles') are in fascicles of five, slender, 7-13 cm long, and deep green to blue-green, with stomata confined to a bright white band on the inner surfaces. The cones are ovoid, massive, 15-27 cm long and 8-14 broad and up to 2 kg weight when closed, green at first, ripening yellow-brown when 26–28 months old, with very thick, woody scales, typically 30-60 fertile scales. The cones open to 10-15 cm broad when mature. The seeds are 2-3 cm long, with a thick shell, with a vestigial 1-2 mm wing; the seedlings have 18-24 cotyledons, the highest number reported for any plant.
Because of its isolation in a remote area, it escaped discovery until 1964, when the Mexican botanist Jerzy Rzedowski noticed some unusually large pine nuts (piñones) sold in the markets of local villages, and investigated the area to find their source. It differs from all other pinyon species in that it has very massive cones and large seeds. Like other pinyons, the seeds are edible; this represents a threat to the species' survival, as the majority of the seeds produced are harvested, limiting natural regeneration of the pines.
It has started being cultivated recently and is a very attractive tree as ornamental. The Mexican government has declared this species endangered.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pinus maximartinezii.|
- Gymnosperm Database: Pinus maximartinezii
- Farjon, A. & Styles, B. T. (1997). Pinus (Pinaceae). Flora Neotropica Monograph 75: 221-224.
- Conifers Around the World: Pinus maximartinezii - Martínez Pinyon Pine.
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