Habitat and Ecology
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 1996Critically Endangered
- 1996Critically Endangered
- 1994Endangered(Groombridge 1994)
The Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) is a leopard subspecies native to the Primorye region of southeastern Russia and the Jilin Province of northeast China. It is classified as Critically Endangered since 1996 by IUCN. In 2007, only 19–26 wild Amur leopards were estimated to survive. Census data published in February 2015 indicate that the population has increased to at least 57 Amur leopards in Russia, and up to 12 Amur leopards in adjacent areas of China.
The Amur leopard is also known as the Far Eastern leopard.
Amur leopards differ from other subspecies by a thick coat of spot covered fur. They show the strongest and most consistent divergence in pattern. Leopards from the Amur river basin, the mountains of north-eastern China and the Korean peninsula have pale cream-colored coats, particularly in winter. Rosettes on the flanks are 5 cm × 5 cm (2.0 in × 2.0 in) and widely spaced, up to 2.5 cm (0.98 in), with thick, unbroken rings and darkened centers.
Their coat is fairly soft with long and dense hair. The length of hair on the back is 20–25 mm (0.79–0.98 in) in summer and 50 mm (2.0 in) in winter. The winter coat varies from fairly light yellow to dense yellowish-red with a golden tinge or rusty-reddish-yellow. The summer pelage is brighter with more vivid coloration pattern. Compared with other leopard subspecies, they are rather small in size, with males bigger than females. Males measure from 107 to 136 cm (42 to 54 in) with a 82 to 90 cm (32 to 35 in) long tail, a shoulder height of 64 to 78 cm (25 to 31 in) and a weight of 32.2–48 kg (71–106 lb). Females weigh from 25–42.5 kg (55–94 lb).
Distribution and habitat
Amur leopards used to be found in northeast asia, probably in the south to Peking, and the Korean Peninsula. In the mid 20th century, their distribution in Russia was limited to the far south of the Ussuri region. The northern boundary commenced on the coast of the Sea of Japan at 44°N and ran south at a distance of 15–30 km (9.3–18.6 mi) from the coast to 43°10’N. There it turned steeply westward, north of the Suchan basin, then north to encompass the source of the Ussuri River and two right bank tributaries in the upper reaches of the Ussuri. There the boundary turned westward toward the bank of Khanka Lake. In the 1950s, leopards were observed 50 km (31 mi) north of Vladivostok and in Kedrovaya Pad Nature Reserve. The association of Amur leopards with mountains is fairly definite. They are confined more to places where wild sika deer live or where deer husbandry is practised. In winter they keep to snow-free rocky slopes facing south.
In the 1970s, the Russian population had fragmented into three separate, small populations. After the turn of the century, the only remaining population is that of southwest Primorye, where the population inhabits an area of approximately 3,000 km2 (1,200 sq mi) along the borders with China and North Korea.
Leopards cross between Russia, China and North Korea across the Tumen River despite a high and long wire fence marking the boundary. Ecological conditions along the border in the mountains are not yet monitored.
In China, Amur leopards were photographed by camera traps in Wangqing and Hunchun, east Jilin Province, China. The only official North Korean government webportal reported in 2009 that there were some leopards in Myohyangsan Nature Reserve located in Hyangsan County. It is likely the southernmost living group of Amur leopard.
Ecology and behavior
Amur leopards are extremely conservative in their choice of territory. An individual's territory is usually located in a river basin which generally extends to the natural topographical borders of the area. The territory of two individuals may sometimes overlap, but only slightly. Depending on sex, age, and family size, the size of an individual's territory can vary from 5,000–30,000 ha (19–116 sq mi). They may use the same hunting trails, routes of constant migration, and even places for extended rest constantly over the course of many years. At places where wild animals are abundant, leopards live permanently or perform only vertical migrations, trailing herds of ungulates and avoiding snow. In the Ussuri region the main prey of leopards are roe and sika deer, Manchurian wapiti, musk deer, moose, and wild pig. More rarely they catch hare, badger, fowl, and mice. In Kedrovaya Pad Nature Reserve roe deer is their main prey year-round, but they also prey on young Eurasian black bears less than two years old.
When density of ungulates is low, leopards have large home ranges that can be up to 100 km2 (39 sq mi).
During a study of radio-collared Amur leopards in the early 1990s, a territorial dispute between two males at a deer farm was documented, suggesting that deer farms are favoured habitats. Female leopards with cubs are relatively often found in the proximity of deer farms. The large number of domestic deer is a reliable food source that may help to survive difficult times.
Sexual maturity sets in at the age of 2–3 years and ability to reproduce continues up to 10–15 years of age. Estrus lasts 12–18 days, and in exceptional cases up to 25 days. Gestation requires 90–105 days, but usually 92–95 days. The weight of a newborn cub is 500–700 g (1.1–1.5 lb). The young open their eyes on the 7th–10th day and begin to crawl on the 12th–15th day. By the second month they emerge from their dens and also begin to eat meat. Lactation continues for five or six months. Juveniles sometimes stay with their mother until she comes into estrus again. Until the 1970s, cubs were seen in Kedrovaya Pad Nature Reserve, Primorsky Krai, and in northeastern China most often from the end of March through May; litters comprised two to three cubs. In captivity some individuals have lived for 21 years.
Amur leopards breed in spring and early summer. One to four cubs are born. They are weaned at the age of 3 months. The young usually leave their mothers at the age of one and a half to two years. During a population census in 1997, four females found with young had only one cub each. Results of radio telemetry studies confirmed that young stay with their mother for two years. In Kedrovaya Pad Nature Reserve the young of two different litters were observed with their mothers at the same time.
Tigers can eliminate leopards if densities of large and medium-sized prey species are low. Competition between these predators supposedly decreases in summer, when small prey species are more available. In winter, conditions are less favorable for tigers and the extent of trophic niche overlap with that of Amur leopards probably reaches its peak.
Poaching of leopards is a main threat for their survival. There are rumours but no evidence that Chinese traders buy leopard skins; no skins were confiscated at borders to China. In 14 months from February 2002 to April 2003, seven skins or part of skins were confiscated, six in Russia and one in China. Leopards are most often killed by local Russians from small villages in and around the leopard habitat. Most of these villagers hunt entirely illegally; they have no licenses for hunting nor for their guns, and they are not members of one of the local hunting leases.
In 1999, skins of poached Amur leopards were offered for $500-1,000 near a protected area in Russia. 
Human induced fires are a main threat to the survival of the Amur leopard. Setting fire to fields is a habit of rural farmers who start them for a particular purpose such as improving fertility for livestock grazing, killing ticks and other insects, making scrap metals visible so that they can be easily collected, culling vegetation along train tracks, and stimulating fern growth. Young ferns are sold in shops, served in restaurants and also exported to China as a popular dish. Surveys using satellite images and GIS techniques revealed that on average 19% of south-west Primorye burns annually, and a total of 46% burned at least once in six years. Due to a long and frequent fire history, much of the land in south-west Primorye has been converted to permanent grasslands. These frequent fires cause degradation of suitable leopard habitat into unsuitable habitat. Repeated fires have created open "savannah" landscapes with grass, oak bushes and isolated trees that leopards seem to avoid, again probably because of low ungulate densities.
Large deer farms extended over thousands of hectares in Amur leopard habitat. Deer farming used to be a large-scale business; the velvet of deer antlers was sold to Asian pharmacies. The number of deer farms decreased considerably since the late 1990s.
A number of plans for economic activities in south-west Primorye were developed that posed a serious threat to the leopard’s survival. A plan to build an oil pipeline from central Siberia through Primorye to the coast of the Sea of Japan has been shelved. A plan for an open pit coal mine in the heart of the leopard range was not carried out following pressure from environmentalists and the Ministry of Natural Resources. The strategic location of south-west Primorye, close to the main population centres of Primorski Krai, the Japanese Sea and the borders of Korea and China, makes it more attractive for economic activities including transport, industries, tourism and development of infrastructure. Logging is not a major threat; the use of the road network established for the transport of logs from forests increases anthropogenic pressures in unprotected leopard habitat.
An acute problem is potential inbreeding, and that the remaining population could disappear as a result of genetic degeneration, even without direct human influence. The levels of diversity are remarkably low, indicative of a history of inbreeding in the population for several generations. Such levels of genetic reduction have been associated with severe reproductive and congenital abnormalities that impede the health, survival and reproduction of some but not all genetically diminished small populations. Cub survival has been declining from 1.9 cubs per one female in 1973 to 1.7 in 1984 and 1.0 in 1991. Besides a decline in natural replacement, there is a high probability of mortality for all age groups as a result of certain diseases or direct human impact.
The Amur Leopard and Tiger Alliance (ALTA) is an initiative of Russian and western conservation organisations to conserve the Amur leopard and Amur tiger, and secure a future for both species in the Russian Far East and Northeast China. ALTA operates across Northeast Asia under the guiding principle that only co-operative, co-ordinated conservation actions from all interested parties can save these endangered species from extinction. ALTA works in close co-operation with local, regional, and federal governmental and non-governmental organisations to protect the region's biological wealth through conservation, sustainable development and local community involvement. The Phoenix Fund and the Wildlife Conservation Society provide a local framework for implementing ALTA projects, working closely with many Russian and Chinese agencies. In regards to conservation of Amur leopards ALTA aims at retaining a leopard population of 35 adult females (100 total) in south-west Primorye and the Jilin-Heilongjiang border region; and creating a second population of 20 adult females (60 total) in the former range of the Amur leopards. Conservation projects for the Amur leopard include:
- four anti-poaching teams with a total of 15 members in the Amur leopard range
- a special task force of local police and anti-poaching teams led by the Khasan prosecutor
- monitoring of the Amur leopard population through snow track counts and camera trap counts
- monitoring and analysis of the impact of fires on Amur leopard habitat and the effectiveness of fire-fighting
- habitat assessment with G.I.S technique : assessment of the role of habitat quality, land ownership, land use, protection status, settlements, deer farms, roads and human settlements with use of monitoring data and satellite images
- development of land-use plans that take in account future needs of Amur leopards
- support for protected areas in the leopard range
- compensation of livestock kills by leopards and tigers
- a comprehensive education program for school children and students in the leopard range
- support for hunting leases and ungulate recovery program
- media campaign to create awareness about the Amur leopard's plight
- support and technical assistance for the new Hunchun reserve in China that borders on the leopard range in Russia
An oil pipeline planned to be built through leopard habitat was rerouted, following a campaign by conservationists.
Reintroduction into the wild
Since 1996 the idea of reintroducing leopards in the south of Sikhote-Alin has been discussed by ALTA members. During a workshop in 2001 the outlines and principles of a plan for the development of a second population of Amur leopard in the Russian Far East was prepared. For reintroduction to be successful, one fundamental question needs to be answered: Why did leopards disappear from the southern Sikhote-Alin in the middle of the 20th century? It was recommended to assess reasons for localized extinctions, obtain support of local people, increase prey in areas proposed for reintroduction, ensure that conditions exist conducive for reintroduction in the selected area, and ensure survival of the existing population. There are two sources of leopards for reintroduction: leopards born and raised in zoos and leopards raised in a special reintroduction center passed through a rehabilitation program for life in the wild.
If this reintroduction is to succeed, it is clear that the design of the breeding and release centre, and the management of the leopards in it, must focus strongly on overcoming the difficulties imposed by the captive origin of the cats. Three necessary behaviours should be acquired prior to release: hunting and killing of live natural prey; avoidance of humans and avoidance of tigers.
In March 2009 the Minister of Natural Resources of Russia during his meeting with Vladimir Putin reassured that the ministry is planning to introduce new "imported" Amur leopards into the area and creating suitable and safe habitat for them. The government already allocated all required funds for the project.
Contiguous patches of potential leopard habitat as potential reintroduction sites were identified in the southern Sikhote-Alin. Three coastal potential habitat patches could harbour about 72 adult leopards.
A captive population of Amur leopards was established in 1961 from nine wild-born founders. A molecular genetic survey revealed that at least two founders of the captive pedigree have genetic information more consistent with Panthera pardus japonensis than any wildborn specimens of P. p. orientalis. This observation lends support to a history of genetic admixture between Amur leopards and North Chinese leopards in the captive pedigree. The zoo population in both the American and European regions includes a considerable contribution of genes from Founder 2, who was not an Amur leopard. European Endangered Species Programme (EEP) strategy has been to manage breeding so as to minimize his contribution as far as possible while still maintaining acceptable overall levels of genetic diversity. All leopards with more than 41% Founder 2 have been excluded from breeding since 1999. This policy has resulted in an overall decrease in the prevalence of Founder 2 genes and an increase in the number of leopards with low percentage of them.
As of December 2011, there are 176 captive Amur leopards in zoos worldwide. Within the EEP 54 male, 40 female and 7 unsexed individuals are kept. In American and Canadian zoos another 31 males and 41 females are kept within the Population Management Program.
Since November 2008, Tallinn Zoo has started a webcasting project. It allows Internet users to follow the domestic life of the zoo's Amur leopards in real time via three webcams, including the infrared camera showing the leopards' lair.
In 2009, the World Wide Fund for Nature asked people to adopt one of the few Amur leopards left in the wild in order to support conservation efforts. The campaign is ongoing, with a new advertisement created in 2011 and broadcast on some TV stations, including E4 (channel).
The Animal Planet documentary The Last Leopard (2008) is about the plight of Amur leopards in Russia. The television series "Wild Russia" showed a quick glimpse into the life of Amur leopards. A female Amur leopard and her cub were featured on Planet Earth episodes "From Pole to Pole" and "Seasonal Forests". The female's name is "Skrytnaya", which means 'the secretive one'. The male cub died at the age of around 18 months; he was the result of inbreeding — the cub's sire was also Skrytnaya's sire.
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- Uphyrkina, O.; Miquelle, D.; Quigley, H.; Driscoll, C.; O’Brien, S. J. (2002). "Conservation Genetics of the Far Eastern Leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis)". Journal of Heredity 93 (5): 303–11. doi:10.1093/jhered/93.5.303. PMID 12547918.
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- Geptner, V.G., Sludskii, A. A. (1972). Mlekopitaiuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Vysšaia Škola, Moskva. (In Russian; English translation: Heptner, V. G., Sludskii, A. A., Komarov, A., Komorov, N. (1992). Bars (Leopard). Pages 203–273 in: Mammals of the Soviet Union. Volume II, Part 2: Carnivora (Hyenas and Cats). Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation, Washington DC).
- Schlegel, H. (1857). Felis orientalis. Page 23 in: Handleiding Tot de Beoefening der Dierkunde, Ie Deel. Boekdrukkerij van Nys, Breda.
- Uphyrkina, O., O'Brien, S. J. (2003). Applying molecular genetic tools to the conservation and action plan for the critically endangered Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis). Comptes Rendus Biologies 326: 93–97.
- Hoette, M. (2003). Amur Leopard and Tiger Conservation in a social and economic context. Zoological Society of London, Tigris Foundation, Amur Leopard and Tiger Alliance (ALTA).
- Nam, S. (2005). Ecosystem Governance in a Cross-border Area: Building a Tuman River Transboundary Biosphere Reserve. China Environment Series (7): 83–88.
- Pikunov, D. G., Aramilev, V. V., Fomenko, V. V., Miquelle, D. V., Abramov, V. K., Korkishko, V. G., Nikolaev, I. G. (2000). Endangered species: The decline of the Amur leopard in the Russian Far East. Russian Conservation News 24: 19–21.
- Kostyria, A.V., Skorodelov, A.S., Miquelle, D.G., Aramilev, V.V., McCullough, D. (2003). Results of Camera Trap Survey of Leopard Population in Southwest Primorski Krai, Winter 2002–2003. Report to Wildlife Conservation Society.
- Quigley, H.; Hornocker, M. (1995). "On The Trail of Russia's Leopards". International Wildlife 25 (3): 38–43.
- "Amur Leopard". World Wide Fund for Nature. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- World Wide Fund for Nature. (2014). Amur Leopard.
- Wildlife Conservation Society (2001). Final Report on a Workshop for Conservation of the Far Eastern Leopard in the Wild. Submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the IUCN Cat Specialist Group.
- Henschel, P., Hunter, L., Breitenmoser, U., Purchase, N., Packer, C., Khorozyan, I., Bauer, H., Marker, L., Sogbohossou, E., Breitenmoser-Würsten, C. (2008). "Panthera pardus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature.
- Christie, S. (2009). Breeding Far Eastern Leopards for Reintroduction: The Zoo Programme Perspective. Pages 388–410 in: Hayward, M. W., Somers, M. J. (eds.). Reintroduction of Top-Order Predators. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi:10.1002/9781444312034.ch18
- Лента.Ру (2009). Минприроды возьмется за восстановление популяции леопардов в России (in Russian; English translation: Ministry of Environment will undertake the restoration of the population of leopards in Russia). Lenta.ru, 18 March 2009.
- Hebblewhite, M.; Miquelle, D. G.; Murzin, A. A.; Aramilev, V. V.; Pikunov, D. G. (2011). "Predicting potential habitat and population size for reintroduction of the Far Eastern leopards in the Russian Far East". Biological Conservation 144 (10): 2403–2413. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.03.020.
- International Species Information System (2011). "ISIS Species Holdings: Panthera pardus orientalis, December 2011".
- "Amur Leopard". interactivezoo.eu. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- Teesalu, I. (13 April 2012). "Amur Leopard Gives Birth to 3 Cubs". news.err.ee. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
The Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), also known as the Manchurian leopard, is a wild feline predator native to the mountainous areas of the taiga as well as other temperate forests in Korea, Northeast China and the Russian Far East. It is one of the rarest felids in the world with an estimated 30 to 35 individuals remaining in the wild. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature has deemed the Amur leopard critically endangered, meaning that it is considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
Of the nine subspecies of leopards, the Amur leopard shows the strongest divergence in coat pattern. The coat is of a pale, cream color (especially in winter) and has widely spaced rosettes with thick, black rings and darkened centers. The length of the coat varies between 2.5 cm (1 in) in summer and 7.5 cm (3 in) in winter. The paler coat and longer fur of the Amur leopard make it distinct from other subspecies. They are also known to have light, blue-green eyes.
Male Amur leopards weigh 32–48 kg (71–106 lb), with exceptionally large males up to 60–75 kg (132–165 lb). Females are smaller than the males at 25–43 kg (55–95 lb).
The Amur typically faces difficulty in areas where it must share territory with tigers, but this is seldom the case in Russia. Studies have indicated that an increased tiger population in the Southwest Primorye area has not adversely affected the leopard population.
Amur leopards in zoos show some evidence of seasonal breeding with a peak in births in late spring/early summer. After a gestation period of around 12 weeks cubs are born in litters of 1–4 individuals, with an average litter size of just over 2. The cubs will stay with their mother for up to two years before becoming fully independent. Females first breed at an age of 3–4 years.
In the wild, leopards live for 10–15 years and they may reach 21 years in captivity.
Fewer than 35 Amur leopards remain in the wild, and their habitat is under threat from logging, forest fires and land clearance for farming.
There appears to be poaching of leopards as well as their prey species. Poachers include both poor local villagers and newly rich Russians, mainly from the city of Vladivostok, as well as Chinese nationals who illegally cross the border into Russia. Russian hunters kill many more deer than is officially allowed and Amur leopards are sometimes caught in snares as well. Since 2002, skins or corpses of nine Amur leopards killed by poachers have been found in Russia and at least two leopards have been killed in China.
The forests on which Amur leopards depend have slowly disappeared as a result of frequent fires. Local villagers start fires for various reasons, but mainly to stimulate the growth of ferns that are a very popular ingredient in Russian and Chinese dishes.
Loss of genetic diversity in the small and isolated Amur leopard population may cause inbreeding depression (reduced numbers due to reduced reproduction, lifespan and increased vulnerability to diseases). However, the results of research so far are inconclusive and additional information on the effects of inbreeding is needed before conclusions can be drawn.They have young every two years.
Southwest Primorye is located close to the Russian borders with China and North Korea, making it an attractive area for infrastructure projects such as new railways, gas and oil pipelines, and ports. In 2005 and 2006 the Zoological Society of London and other ALTA partners led a successful international campaign against a plan to build an oil pipeline terminal on the coast of the Sea of Japan in the leopard’s range.
Although not much attention has been paid to the situation, significant progress in conserving Amur leopards and tigers has been made over the last decade. A coalition of 13 international and Russian non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have pooled resources by creating The Amur Leopard and Tiger Alliance (ALTA). Inside the Russian Far East, Phoenix Fund conducts anti-poaching and habitat protection activities, while other ALTA members conduct public outreach, policy development, and scientific research to forward Amur leopard conservation. Collectively, ALTA members have been co-operating for many years in developing, financing and implementing conservation projects in Russia and China.
ALTA members have developed a comprehensive conservation program for the Amur leopard’s range in Russia and Northeast China that includes:
- Forest fire-fighting
- Compensation for livestock killed by tigers and leopards
- A comprehensive education and public awareness program
- Population monitoring (Snow-track counts and camera trapping)
- Ecological and biomedical research
- Support for protected areas and hunting leases
- Lobbying for improved conservation policies and regulations
- Amur leopard conservation in China
In addition, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is also a major contributor.
In recent years wildlife in Russia has suffered from a lack of political interest in conservation. Negative developments since 2000 include the abolition of the State Committee for Nature Conservation, revoking the law enforcement rights of Inspection Tiger (an anti-poaching brigade for protection of tigers and leopards), and a reduction of approximately 80% in the number of field inspectors for protection of forests and animals. The only official North Korean government site, Naenara, reported in 2009 that in Myohyangsan Nature Reserve located in Hyangsan County, there were some leopards. It is likely the southernmost living group of Amur's Leopard.
Ex situ conservation
There are approximately 300 Amur leopards in zoos in Europe, Russia and North America. These are part of breeding programmes that try to ensure that the zoo populations do not become too inbred. Transfers of animals are made between zoos so that different individuals can breed together to produce cubs with high genetic variation. It is important to maintain zoo populations of the Amur leopard with a reasonable level of genetic variation because it is likely that some individuals from zoos will be reintroduced into the wild in the future.
Re-introduction into the wild
In March 2009 the Minister of Natural Resources of Russia during his meeting with Vladimir Putin reassured the Prime Minister that the ministry is planning to restore Amur Leopard population by introducing new "imported" Amur Leopards into the area and creating suitable and safe habitat for them. Mr. Trutnev did not explain where the ministry is planning to get additional leopards and how. (It is assumed that Ministry is planning to re-introduce captive animals (cubs) into the wild). He has also said that the job is going according to the plan, and that specialists are already working on the project and that the government already allocated all required funds for the project.
There is the possibility that leopards from zoo stocks will be used for reintroduction into the wild within the foreseeable future. The reintroduction plan is completed and will hopefully be approved at a meeting in Vladivostok in March 2010. This would create a second population as a backup, probably in the Lazovsky Nature Reserve where Amur leopards have historically been found.
Further information on the reintroduction of Amur leopards from zoos can be found in Chapter 18 of 'Reintroduction of Top-Order Predators', published in 2009.
In 2009, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) created an advertisement asking people to adopt one of the few Amur leopards left in an attempt to help conserve them.
Amur leopards are mentioned in Episode 4, Season 5 of NBC's The West Wing.
- ^ a b U.Breitenmoser, C.Breitenmoser-Wursten, P.Henschel, L.Hunter (2008). "Panthera pardus orientalis". International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources . http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/15957/0/full. Retrieved October 21, 2009.
- ^ http://www.amur-leopard.org/
- ^ a b Nowell, Kristen; Jackson Peter, ed (1996). Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. pp. 78. ISBN 2-8317-0045-0. http://carnivoractionplans1.free.fr/wildcats.pdf.
- ^ a b c http://www.amur-leopard.org/index.php?pg=wild
- ^ http://www.amur-leopard.org/index.php?id=331#poaching
- ^ http://www.amur-leopard.org/index.php?id=331#Political
- ^ http://lenta.ru/news/2009/03/18/leo/ In Russian. Lenta.ru
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