Central Africa: Protopterus annectens brieni is known from the Luapula-Mweru and Lufira River basins in the upper Congo River basin.
Eastern Africa: It is present in the Lower Shire River, and Monkey Bay in Lake Malawi (Lake Malawi catchment) after introduction to the Mpatsanjoka dambo (Salima).
Southern Africa: It is found in coastal rivers of Mozambique from the Incomati River north to the Zambezi. It extends upstream into the middle Zambezi and present in the Zambian Congo. Also occurs in arid regions of the Changane system (northern Limpopo River) in Mozambique and extending up into the Gonarezhou National Park in Zimbabwe. Protopterus annectens brieni has been translocated to additional sites in the Kruger National Park in South Africa (Skelton 1993).
Zambezi River Demersal Habitat
This taxon is one of a number of demersal species in the Zambezi River system of southern Africa. Demersal river fish are found at the river bottom, feeding on benthos and zooplankton
Nutrient levels in the Zambezi River are relatively low, especially in the upper Zambezi; in that reach, above Victoria Falls, most of the catchment drains Kalahari sands, whose nutrient levels are inherently low due to their aeolian formation; moreover, agricultural fertilizer addition throughout the Zambezi watershed is low, due to the shortage of capital available to farmers of this region.
Nitrate levels (as nitrogen) in the upper Zambezi are typically in the range of .01 to .03 milligrams per liter. Correspondingly electrical conductivity of the upper Zambezi is on the order of 75 micro-S per centimeter, due to the paucity of ion content. From the Luangwa River downstream nitrate levels elevate to .10 to .18 milligrams per liter, and electrical conductivity rises to a range of two to four times the upper Zambezi levels. Not surprisingly, pH, calcium ion concentration, bicarbonate and electrical conductivity are all higher in portions of the catchment where limestone soils predominate compared to granite.
There are a total of 190 fish species present in the Zambezi River, including eel and shark taxa. The largest native demersal species present are the 117 centimeter (cm) long tiger fish (Hydrocynus vittatus), the 175 cm African mottled eel (Anguilla bengalensis labiata), the 120 cm Indonesian shortfin eel (Anguilla bicolor bicolor), the 200 cm Giant mottled eel (Anguilla marmorata), the 150 cm African longfin eel (Anguilla mossambica), the 183 cm Sampa (Heterobranchus longifilis), the 150 cm Cornish jack (Mormyrops anguilloides) and the 700 cm largetooth sawfish (Pristis microdon).
Habitat and Ecology
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria