Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Breeds across North American tundra from northern Alaska east across northern Canada to the ice-free perimeter of Greenland. Winters in Latin America from Cuba and Mexico south through Central and South America (Palmer 1988, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1993).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

Arctic tundra of North America (Alaska to Greenland).
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Size

Length: 51 cm

Weight: 1500 grams

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Plumage is paler than that of other North American subspecies.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Comments: See files for FALCO PEREGRINUS.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

See files for FALCO PEREGRINUS.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Comments: See files for FALCO PEREGRINUS.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Comments: Total number of occurrences unknown. Approximately 500 breeding sites known, but large areas of the subspecies' range, particularly in the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Greenland, have not been surveyed. Existing data is insufficient to provide an upper number limit on breeding sites (T. Swem, pers. com. 1993); an initial estimate may be 2,000-5,000 pairs, but the number could possibly range as high as 10,000 pairs.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Abundance

2500 - 10,000 individuals

Comments: Total population size unknown. Survey data are very limited, particularly in the Northwest Territories and Greenland. Approximately 500 pairs are known (Swem pers. com. 1993), but the population could range from 2,000 up to 10,000 pairs rangewide. Mattox (cited in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1993) estimates that there are 1,000-2,000 breeding sites in Greenland alone. The available data are simply insufficient to provide any reasonable level of confidence on the upper limit of population size.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

See files for FALCO PEREGRINUS.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: See files for FALCO PEREGRINUS.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

See files for FALCO PEREGRINUS.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N3B - Vulnerable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N3B - Vulnerable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: Recovering from population decline due to pesticide poisoning. Has a widespread distribution and a large number of breeding sites, most in remote, undisturbed wilderness.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Short Term Trend: Increase of 10 to >25%

Comments: Increasing across range (USFWS 1994).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Degree of Threat: B : Moderately threatened throughout its range, communities provide natural resources that when exploited alter the composition and structure of the community over the long-term, but are apparently recoverable

Comments: Habitat loss, human disturbance, pesticide poisoning on the wintering grounds, and illegal take may all affect the recovery of this subspecies. However, while the rate of habitat modification in nesting, migration, and wintering areas is increasing, the numbers of arctic peregrines nearly tripled between the mid 1970s and early 1990s. This suggests that habitat modification does not currently threaten the continued existence of the subspecies (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1993). Although DDT and associated organochlorine pesticides were banned in the United States and Canada in the early 1970s, such chemicals are still in use in Latin America where the birds winter. Records of egg shell contamination, however, have shown a steady decline in the amount of pesticide residue found in the shells. The levels now appear to be below that which affects productivity (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1993). Illegal take (including egg collecting, shooting, and harvest for falconry) can occur, but these activities are so regulated by federal and international laws that they are not considered significant in having any affect on the reproductive success of the subspecies.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Biological Research Needs: Determination of the extent to which this subspecies is subject to pesticide poisoning, shooting, and disturbance on its wintering grounds. Determination of changes in food availability on wintering grounds and along migration routes. Determination of the affect and rate of habitat modification on habitat use patterns on the breeding grounds, wintering grounds, and along the migration routes.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Protection: Many to very many (13 to >40) occurrences appropriately protected and managed

Comments: Probably many occurrences in protected areas in northern Canada and Alaska. Protected in the United States and Canada under the Migratory Bird Treaty (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1993). The MBT has provisions to allow taking and use of migratory birds, but require that the populations are not adversely affected by such activity. In addition, the arctic peregrine is currently listed under Appendix 1 of The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), an international agreement that restricts trade in rare and endangered species.

Needs: Identification and protection of critical habitats subject to modification and loss.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Comments: See files for FALCO PEREGRINUS.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!