Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found in streams, ponds, rivers and lakes (Ref. 5951). Individuals spend 1 to 5 years in fresh water and 6 months to 5 years in salt water (Ref. 51442). Juveniles mature in 3-4 years (Ref. 6885). Lacustrine populations undertake migration to tributaries and lake outlets to spawn, rarely spawning on stone, wave-washed lake shores. Spawns in rivers and streams with swift current, usually characterized by downward movement of water intro gravel (Ref. 59043). Spawning takes place normally more than one time (Ref. 51442). They prefer cold, well-oxygenated upland waters although their tolerance limits are lower than those of rainbow trout and favors large streams in the mountainous areas with adequate cover in the form of submerged rocks, undercut banks, and overhanging vegetation (Ref. 6465). Life history and spawning behavior is similar to the salmon Salmo salar (Ref. 51442). Each female produces about 10.000 eggs (Ref. 35388, Ref. 51442). Mainly diurnal (Ref. 682). Sea and lake trouts forage in pelagic and littoral habitats, while sea trouts mainly close to coast, not very far from estuary of natal river (Ref. 59043). Juveniles feed mainly on aquatic and terrestrial insects; adults on mollusks, crustaceans and small fish (Ref. 26523, Ref. 51442). Marketed fresh and smoked; eaten fried, broiled, boiled, cooked in microwave, and baked (Ref. 9988).
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Distribution

Europe and Asia: northwestern coast of Europe. Introduced widely. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
  • Rochard, E. and P. Elie 1994 La macrofaune aquatique de l'estuaire de la Gironde. Contribution au livre blanc de l'Agence de l'Eau Adour Garonne. p. 1-56. In J.-L. Mauvais and J.-F. Guillaud (eds.) État des connaissances sur l'estuaire de la Gironde. Agence de l'Eau Adour-Garonne, Éditions Bergeret, Bordeaux, France. 115 p. (Ref. 51442)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=51442&speccode=238 External link.
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Caspian Sea watersheds.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 3 - 4; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10 - 15; Anal spines: 3 - 4; Analsoft rays: 9 - 14; Vertebrae: 57 - 59
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Size

Max. size

140 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 682)); max. published weight: 50.0 kg (Ref. 682); max. reported age: 38 years (Ref. 32682)
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Diagnostic Description

Fusiform body (Ref. 51442). Head little and pointed (Ref. 51442). Mouth large, extending mostly after the eye and has well developed teeth (Ref. 51442). Teeth on shaft of vomer numerous and strongly developed (Ref. 7251). Caudal fin with 18-19 rays (Ref. 2196). Caudal peduncle thick and rounded (Ref. 51442). Little scales (Ref. 51442). Body is grey-blue colored with numerous spots, also below the lateral line (Ref. 51442). Blackish colored on upper part of body, usually orange on sides, surrounded by pale halos. Adipose fin with red margin.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

pelagic-neritic; anadromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 0 - ? m, usually ? - 10 m
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Migration

Anadromous. Fish that ascend rivers to spawn, as salmon and hilsa do. Sub-division of diadromous. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Brown trout are territorial and begin establishing territories as juveniles (Ref. 26526). Juvenile trout from lake populations move from their natal inlets to lakes during the first 2 years of life (Ref. 6390). For sympatric populations of this species and Gadopsis marmoratus, coexistence was possible, although their diets were similar, because each species occupied different habitats (Ref. 26860). Juveniles feed mainly on larvae of insects; adults feed on crustaceans and fish (Ref. 51442). Fingerling brown trout seems to act as an opportunistic predator, and the consumption of different preys seems to be influenced by their accessibility, predation risk, and their energetic value (Ref. 55756). It is preyed upon by kingfishers and mergansers.
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Diseases and Parasites

Hysterothylacium Infection 8. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Hysterothylacium Infection (Hysterothylacium sp.). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Enteric Redmouth Disease. Bacterial diseases
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Camallanus Infection 16. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Aeromonosis. Bacterial diseases
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Female covers the eggs by restirring the sand and fine gravel (Ref. 9696). After hatching at 12 mm, larval brown trout remain in the gravel for 2-3 weeks until they are about 25 mm long, when they emerge to begin feeding in the water column. Brown trout are territorial and begin establishing territories as juveniles. Juvenile trout from lake populations move from their natal inlets to lakes during the first 2 years of life (Ref. 6390).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Salmo trutta trutta

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Least Concern (LC)
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
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