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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults are principally caught in coastal waters and around islands (Ref. 9340). Form schools. Feed on small fishes, particularly anchovies, crustaceans (especially crab and stomatopod larvae) and squids. Eggs and larvae are pelagic (Ref. 6769). Because of their abundance, they are considered an important element of the food web, particularly as forage for other species of commercial interest. Also caught with encircling nets and troll lines (Ref. 9340). Marketed fresh and frozen (Ref. 9340) and also dried or salted, smoked and canned (Ref. 9987).
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Distribution

Cosmopolitan in tropical through temperate seas (including western Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Mascarenes, Hawaiian Islands), but except Eastern Pacific.
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Atlantic, Indian and Pacific: including the Mediterranean Sea. The eastern Pacific population is recognized as subspecies Auxis rochei eudorax (Ref. 32349). Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9 - 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10 - 13; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 12 - 14
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Size

Maximum size: 500 mm FL
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Max. size

50.0 cm FL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 168))
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Diagnostic Description

Back bluish, turning to deep purple or almost black on head. Scaleless area with pattern of 15 or more fairly broad, nearly vertical dark bars. Belly white. Pectoral and pelvic fins purple, their inner sides black. Body robust, elongate and rounded. Teeth small and conical, in a single series. Pectoral fins short, not reaching vertical line from anterior margin of scaleless area above corselet. A large, single-pointed flap (interpelvic process) between pelvic fins. Body naked except for corselet, which is well developed in its posterior part 9 more than 6 scales wide under second dorsal-fin origin). A strong central keel on each side of caudal-fin base between 2 smaller keels (Ref 9684).
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine; depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 9340)
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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 700 - 1537
  Temperature range (°C): 3.728 - 5.546
  Nitrate (umol/L): 18.180 - 19.115
  Salinity (PPS): 34.955 - 35.017
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.105 - 6.318
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.184 - 1.215
  Silicate (umol/l): 12.504 - 13.033

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 700 - 1537

Temperature range (°C): 3.728 - 5.546

Nitrate (umol/L): 18.180 - 19.115

Salinity (PPS): 34.955 - 35.017

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.105 - 6.318

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.184 - 1.215

Silicate (umol/l): 12.504 - 13.033
 
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

A schooling species, usually confined to oceanic salinities and with an optimum temperature between 27 and 27°C. Its larvae has the widest temperature tolerance among the tuna species studied, at least between 21.6 and 30.5°C.
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Diseases and Parasites

Tergestia Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Rhipidocotyle Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Phyllodistomum Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Phacelotrema Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Opepherotrema Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Hexostoma auxidi Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Didymozoon Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Colocynotrema Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Callitetrarhynchus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Caligus Infestation 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Bomolochus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Fecundity ranges between 31,000 and 103,000 eggs per spawning according to the size of the fish.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Auxis rochei rochei

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Least Concern (LC)
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes; price category: very high; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Wikipedia

Bullet tuna

The bullet tuna, Auxis rochei rochei, is a subspecies of tuna, in the family Scombridae, found circumglobally in tropical oceans in open surface waters to depths of 50m (164 ft). Its maximum length is 50.0 cm.

Sometimes called bullet mackerel, the bullet tuna is a comparatively small and slender tuna. It has a triangular first dorsal fin, widely separated from the second dorsal fin, which, like the anal and pectoral fins, is relatively small. There are the usual finlets of the tuna. There is a small corselet of small scales around the pectoral region of the body.

Bullet tunas are blue-black on the back with a pattern of zig-zag dark markings on the upper hind body, and silver below. The fins are dark grey.

They feed on small fish, squid, planktonic crustaceans, and stomatopod larvae.

References[edit]

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