Overview

Distribution

endemic to a single nation

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Range extends from southeastern Virginia and the Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina southward through Georgia to southern Florida, and westward to eastern Louisiana, Tennessee, and Kentucky (Conant and Collins 1991, Pyron and Burbrink 2009). Distributional details along the northern and western edges of the range have not be precisely delineated.

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Physical Description

Type Information

Holotype for Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoides
Catalog Number: USNM 21163
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol; Dry
Year Collected: 1893
Locality: Raleigh, Wake, North Carolina, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Blanchard, F. N. 1920. Occ. Paps. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. (81): 2, plate 1.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Pine flatwoods, wet prairie hammocks; less frequently in bottomland, mixed hardwood, and upland pine forest, sandhills, and maritime hammock; rare in extensive grassy wetlands (except "limestone-lined banks of sugar cane irrigation fields") (Tennant 1997). In or near pine woods beneath logs and stumps; also in coastal plains.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300

Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations) and locations (as defined by IUCN).

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Global Abundance

10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: This taxon has long been regarded as a subspecies of L. triangulum. Armstrong et al. (2001) examined populations of L. trianugulum subspecies syspila and elapsoides in western Kentucky and adjacent Tennessee and concluded that the two taxa exist in sympatry with minimal, if any, gene flow between the populations. Based on multiple nuclear and mitochondrial genes, Pyron and Burbrink (2009) reported that elapsoides is well differentiated from L. triangulum. Consequently, Crother et al. (in Crother 2012) listed L. elapsoides as a distinct species. Conant and Collins (1991) mapped extensive areas of apparent intergradation between elapsoides and other triangulum subspecies, but Pyron and Burbrink (2009) did not delineate the range of L. elapsoides nor specify contact zones or discuss possible hybridization between elapsoides and populations of L. triangulum.

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