Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Jumping spiders do not make webs; instead they actively hunt their prey by creeping up and then jumping on them, disabling them with their jaws (5). They are equipped with excellent eyesight, and probably have the most developed eyes of any arthropod. Four of the eight eyes are large and forward-facing giving it stereoscopic vision; the other eyes are arranged so that the spider can see completely around its own body (3). If you slowly wave a finger at a zebra spider it is likely to turn so that it has a good view. They leave a line of silk behind them in case they should lose their footing (3). In males, a pair of leg-like appendages called the pedipalps (or simply 'palps') are used to transfer sperm to females during copulation. During courtship, a male has to be very careful when approaching the female, or she may react aggressively or even mistake him for a prey species. He signals to the female with his front legs before mating. If successful, he transfers his sperm to the female's reproductive organ (the epigyne) (3).
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Description

The zebra spider is one of the most familiar of the British jumping spiders, and is often found on sunny house walls (2). As the name suggests, this small and attractive spider is black with stripes of shining white hairs (2). Males can be distinguished from females as they have a set of huge chelicerae that are used in battles with other males (3).
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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Range

This species is widespread and common throughout Britain (2). It is also widespread throughout Europe, northern Asia and North America (4).
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Ecology

Habitat

Found on and around walls of buildings, fences, window frames and on tree trunks (2) (1).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Salticus scenicus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AATCATAAAGATATTGGGACTTTATATTTAATTTTTGGAGCTTGATCGGCTATAGTAGGAACGGCAATAAGAGTTTTGATTCGAATAGAATTAGGACAGACAGGTAGATTTTTAGGAAATGATCATATATATAATGTAATTGTGACGGCACATGCTTTTGTTATAATTTTTTTTATAGTGATACCAATTTTAATTGGTGGTTTTGGAAATTGGTTGGTTCCGTTGATGTTAGGGGCCCCTGATATAGCTTTTCCTCGAATAAATAATTTGAGTTTTTGATTATTACCGCCTTCTTTATTTTTGTTATTTATTTCGTCTTTGGCAGAAATAGGAGTAGGAGCAGGTTGAACGGTGTATCCTCCATTAGCATCAATTGTTGGTCATAATGGAAGATCTGTGGATTTTGCTATTTTTTCTTTACATTTAGCTGGTGCTTCTTCAATTATGGGAGCTATTAATTTTATTTCTACAGTTATTAATATACGGTCTGTAGGGATATCAATGGATAAGGTTCCTTTATTTGTATGGTCGGTTGTAATTACTGCTGTTCTTTTATTATTATCTTTGCCTGTATCAGCAGGTGCTTGGACTNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Salticus scenicus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 25
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Status

not threatened (2)
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Threats

This spider is not threatened.
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Management

Conservation

Conservation action is not required for this common species.
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Wikipedia

Zebra spider

The zebra spider, Salticus scenicus, is a common jumping spider. Like other jumping spiders, it doesn't build a web. It uses its four pairs of large eyes to locate prey and its jumping ability to pounce and capture it. Zebra spiders are often noted for their awareness of humans. Upon noticing someone observing them, they can be seen raising their head, and usually change behavior (hence the name Salticus scenicus, theatrical jumper).

Description[edit]

Female zebra spiders are 5–7 millimetres (0.20–0.28 in) long and males are 5–6 mm (0.20–0.24 in).[1] The most distinctive feature of these spiders is their two very large eyes, which is typical for jumping spiders. Although they have eight eyes, the two at the front are the largest and give them excellent binocular vision. These tiny spiders are black with white hairs that form stripes.[1]

Distribution[edit]

Zebra spiders are widespread across Britain, Europe, and North America,[1] and are found throughout the Holarctic. They often live close to or in human settlements. They can be found on walls, plants and fences on sunny days; and also indoors on window sills, often in the corner behind curtains.

Behavior[edit]

Diet[edit]

Zebra spiders tend to hunt insects or spiders of roughly their own size or smaller. They have been observed feeding on mosquitos that are almost twice their length. They have also been observed taking on prey items up to 3 times the length of the spider, such as some of the smaller species of moth. Like other jumping spiders, these spiders use their large front eyes to locate and stalk their prey. They move slowly towards their prey until they are close enough to pounce on top of their victim, and their hunting behaviour has been described as cat-like. Using their acute eyesight, they are able to accurately judge the distances they need to jump.

Hunting[edit]

They orient towards prey detected by its lateral eyes whenever the angle subtended by such prey exceeds 5.5°. The velocity of the prey is not involved in the determination of reactive distance, but only moving objects elicit orientation. The probability that orientation is followed by stalking is a function of both prey size and velocity. The zebra spider's stalk velocity declines progressively as it nears its (stationary) prey.[2]

Before jumping, they glue a silk thread to the surface that they are jumping from so that if they miss the target, they can climb up the thread and try again - However, they may 'abseil' with a silk thread if they wish to descend from a height safely, for instance they have been documented 'abseiling' from ceilings. They ignore unappetising insects such as ants.

There are no extensor muscles at the 'hinge joints' of the spider leg, instead joints extension is due to the haemocoelic blood pressure in the leg. The most significant evidence that this extension is due to hydraulic forces is that the leg spines become erect during the jump, a result of increased body pressure which can be demonstrated on many spiders. The zebra spider's jump is almost entirely due to the sudden straightening of the fourth pair of legs. The mean jumping velocity is estimated to be between 0.64–0.79 m/s (2.1–2.6 ft/s).[3]

Reproduction[edit]

When these spiders meet, the male carries out a courtship dance involving waving his front legs and moving his abdomen up and down. The better the dance the more likely the female will want to mate, with success guaranteed if the male can exhibit a perfect shuffle. Females will stay with their egg sacs and will guard the young after they hatch. After the spiderlings have had their second moult they will leave the mother and fend for themselves.

Taxonomic history[edit]

Salticus scenicus was one of the spiders included in Carl Alexander Clerck's 1757 work Svenska Spindlar / Aranei Suecici, the starting point for spider names in zoological nomenclature.[4] Clerck originally called the species Araneus scenicus, and Carl Linnaeus, in the 1758 edition of Systema Naturae named it Aranea scenica; the specific epithet scenicus means "actor".[5] Since then a number of synonyms have been published:[4]

  • Araneus scenicus
  • Aranea scenica
  • Aranea albo-fasciata
  • Aranea fulvata
  • Attus scenicus
  • Attus candefactus
  • Epiblemum faustum
  • Attus scenicoides
  • Calliethera histrionica
  • Calliethera scenica
  • Calliethera aulica
  • Salticus albovittatus
  • Attus histrionicus
  • Callithera alpina
  • Callietherus histrionicus
  • Epiblemum histrionicum
  • Salticus histrionicus
  • Epiblemum scenicum
  • Calliethera goberti
  • Calliethera albovittata

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Zebra spider (Salticus scenicus)". ARKive. Retrieved September 22, 2010. 
  2. ^ Lawrence M. Dill (1975). "Predatory behavior of the zebra spider, Salticus scenicus (Araneae: Salticidae)". Canadian Journal of Zoology 53 (9): 1284–1289. doi:10.1139/z75-153. 
  3. ^ D. A. Parry & R. H. J. Brown (1959). "The jumping mechanism of salticid spiders" (PDF). Journal of Experimental Biology 36 (4): 654–664. 
  4. ^ a b Norman I. Platnick (June 7, 2010). "Salticidae". The World Spider Catalog, Version 11.0. American Museum of Natural History. 
  5. ^ Nick Loven. "Salticus scenicus". Nick's Spiders of Britain and Europe. Retrieved September 22, 2010. 
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