Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

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Global Range: BREEDING: in mountains from central interior British Columbia and southwestern Alberta south through Washington, Oregon, Nevada, and California to northern Baja California, east to northern Wyoming, western Colorado, and Utah; nests from 180 m (Washington) to >3000 m (California). NON-BREEDING: Baja California, Sonora, and Sinaloa south to central Mexico.

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Range

Mts. of Br. Columbia to sw US and n Baja; winters to s Mexico.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 8 cm

Weight: 3 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: Mountains; along meadows, canyons and streams. Open montane forest, mountain meadows, and willow and alder thickets, gardens; in migration and winter also in chaparral, lowland brushy areas, deserts (AOU 1983). Nests in tree (frequently conifer) at edge of meadow or in canyon or thicket along stream. Nests <1-21 m above ground (usually low, with branch or foliage above). Nectar supply unimportant in location of male's breeding territory (Armstrong 1987).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

In spring migrates through western Mexico, arrives in southern California in early March, British Columbia in late-April to mid-May, Idaho and Montana usually not before mid-May. Departs northern breeding range by late-August to mid-September, gone from southern U.S. by late September (Johnsgard 1983).

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Feeds on nectar, insects (some obtained by hawking) and spiders. Tends to feed close to ground. Food sources include: CASTILLEJA, PENSTEMON, AQUILEGIA, IPOMOPSIS, RIBES, ARCTOSTAPHYLOS, MIMULUS, PEDICULARIS, SARCODES.

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General Ecology

See Calder and Calder (1995, Auk 112:517-521) for some density data.

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

In southern British Columbia, defends territories late April-late June. Two eggs are laid during May-July in British Columbia and California. Incubation lasts about 15 days. Young are capable of flight about 20 days after hatching (Terres 1980). One brood per year.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

History
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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