IUCN threat status:

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Comprehensive Description

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Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau, 1855)

(Figure 21, Table 5)

Platystoma punctifer Castelnau, 1855 ZBK : 40, plate 19 (Fig. 2). Type locality: de l'Amazone [ Brazil ]. Holotype : MNHN 1582 .

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum intermedium Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888 ZBK :138. Type locality: Obidos [ Brazil ]. Holotype : MCZ 7321 .

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum brevifile Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 ZBK : 31. Type locality: Goyaz [ Brazil ]. Holotype : MCZ 7317 .

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum nigricans Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 ZBK :31. Type locality: Xingu [ Brazil ]. Syntypes : MCZ 7301, 7311 (2).

Geographic distribution: Amazon River in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú , and Venezuela (Fig. 22)

FIGURE 21. Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau, 1855) , holotype, MNHN 1582. Illustration from original description.

FIGURE 22. Distribution of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (black circles); and P. metaense (black squares), type locality is indicated by a star.

Material examined: HolotypeMNHN 0000-1582 , 500 mm SL, Amazon River (no precise location). ANSP 95870 , (1), Parnahyba River, Teresina , state of Piauhy , Brazil , R. von Ihering , 1936 . ANSP 147886 , (1), Nanay River tributary of Amazon River, Iquitos , Perú , C. C. Chaplin et al. , 10 December 1955 . ANSP 142538 , (1), lago Tupuhumaro, Puerto Maldonado, Las Piedras River , 12°33'0"S , 69°13'0"W , Amazon River , state of Madre de Dios , Perú , R. Horwitz , 16 August 1977 . ANSP 165080 , (1), quebrada of Yanayacu River, tributary Maranon River , 4°42'0"S , 74°17'0"W , department of Loreto , Perú , P. Fromm et al. , 21 August 1989 . AUM 23585 , (1 ds, head), lago Tumi Chucua, Beni River, Madeira River , department of Beni , Bolivia , 11°07'S , 66°11'W . C. K. Swing , 16 November 1981 . BMNH 1849.1187 , (2), Amazon River , Loreto , Perú . CAS 117202 , (1), carlo del Chancho, near Pebas, Amazon River , department of Loreto , Perú , W. G. Scherer , 1 August 1941 . CAS 76671 , (2), Peru , W. R. Allen , 1920 . CAS 18372 , (1), Puinahua River, mouth of Pacaya River, Amazon River , Perú , W. R. Allen , September 1920 . CAS 45788 , (1), Santarem market, Amazon River , state of Para , Brazil , C. Ternetz , September 1924 . CAS 78407 , (1), locality of Contamana, Ucayali River, Amazon River , department of Ucayali , Perú , W. R. Allen , July 1920 . CAS 18301 , (1), Sanatarem market, Amazon River , state of Para , Brazil , C. Ternetz , August 1924 . CAS 133399 , (1 c&s), Ampiyacu River, Amazon River , department of Loreto , Perú , W. G. Scherer , 26 September 1937 . CAS 213339 , (1 c&s), lago Cashiba, Amazon River , department of Loreto , Perú , W. R. Allen , 3 August 1920 . CU 53649 , (1), lagoon on island at the mouth of Ica River in Porto America in the Amazon River , state of Amazonas , Brazil , J. C. Bradley , 19 January 1920 . CU 53650 , (1), Iquitos fish market, Amazon River , department of Loreto , Perú , J. C. Bradley , 8 May 1920 . INHS 39770 , (1), lago Pabellon , 3º44'8"S , 72º25'03"W , 57.1 mi E Iquitos, Orosa River, tributary Amazon River , department of Loreto , Perú , M. Sabaj et al.15 August 1996 . INHS 68071 , (1), lake Marchantaria, Camaleao inlet, Marchantaria island, about 12 km S Manaus, Amazon River , state of Amazonas , Brazil , P. B. Bayley , 28 September 1978 . INHS 43667 , (1), Ullpa - Cano and cano Morena, Itaya River tributary of Amazon River, near Belen , Iquitos , 3º46'20"S , 73º14'17"W , department of Loreto , Perú , M. Sabaj and J. W. Armbruster , 23 July 1997 . INHS 38840 , (1), purchased at Iquitos fish market, Amazon River , department of LoretoPerú , 10 August 1996 . MCP 19764 , (1 ds), Amazon River at Manaus , 3º18'S , 58º46'W , state of Amazonas , Brazil , R. E. Reis , 14 October 1994 . MCP 18192 , (1), (1 ds) lake of Araguaia River, near city of Luis Alves , 13º14'S , 50º35'W , Amazon River , state of Goiás , Brazil , F. Garro , September 1994 . MCZ 7310 , (1), Poti River, tributary Parnaiba River, at Teresina , 5º5'S , 42º49'W , state of Piauí , Brazil , O. John , December 1865 . MCZ 7313 , (1), Solimoes River at Tefe , 3º24'S , 64º45'W , Amazon River , state of Amazonas , Brazil , L. Agassiz et al. , October 1865 . MCZ 7312 , (1), Jutai River , 2º43'S , 66º57'W , Amazon River , state of Amazonas , Brazil , W. James , September 1865 . NRM 13436 , (2), Belen fish market at Iquitos, Amazon River , department of Loreto , Perú , S. Kullander et al. , 23 August 1983 . SIUC 39825 , (1), north side of large island across Maranon River, town of Mazan , 3º28'98'S , 73º05'203"W , Rio Amazonas , state of Loreto , Perú . J. G. Stewart et al. , 30 July 1999 . SIUC 26720 , (1), mercado Belen in Iquitos, Amazon River , department of Loreto , Perú , B. M. Burr et al. , 1996 . SIUC 26893 , (1), mercado Nauta, captured ca. 20 km E Nauta near confluence with channel, Amazon River , department of Loreto , Perú , B. M. Burr et al. , 13 July 1994 . SIUC 39890 , (1 ds), Tamshiyacu River at the confluence with Amazon River , 4º01'S , 73º8'W , province of Maynas, department of Loreto , Perú , J. G. Stewart et al. , 28 July 1999 . SIUC 39301 , (6 ds), mercado Belen in the city of Iquitos , department of Loreto , Perú , purchased by J. G. Stewart , July 1999 . UF 8810 , (1 ds). UF 117983 , (1 ds), Amiria reserve , province of Maynas , Amazonas River , department of Loreto , Perú , J. Albert , August 2000 . UF 117984 , (1 ds), Amiria reserve , province of Maynas , Amazon River , department of Loreto , Perú , J. Albert , August 2000 . UF 8809 , (1 ds). UMMZ 217861 , (1), lago do Reis, Ilha do Careiro, Amazon River , state of Amazonas , Brazil , 14 January 1983 . USNM 305806 , (1), camp Trapiche, 400 M rio abajo of Curiraba River, Beni River, Amazon River , Bolivia , H. Ortega et al. , 1 August 1988 . USNM 284814 , (4), fish market at Iquitos, Amazon River , department of Loreto , Perú , R. Vari and H. Ortega , 19 August 1986 . USNM 179502 , (1), whereabouts in the Amazon River . USNM 306832 , (1), ressaca da Ilha de Marchantaria , Brazil , P. Bayley , 19 September 1978 . USNM 041505 , (1), Teffe , Brazil . USNM 320611 , (1), Matos River below road crossing, 48 Km E. San Borja , province of Beni , Bolivia , W. C. Starnes et al. , 28 August 1987 .

Diagnosis: A species of Pseudoplatystoma ZBK distinguished by a combination of the following features: 37- 40 vertebrae; dark vertical bars straight; vertical bars on one side no connecting across dorsum with bars on the opposite side. Free, discrete dark spots present below lateral line; first anal spinelet contacts haemal arch of vertebral centra number 22; adipose fin with fewer spots (6 to 8) than sister species, P. fasciatum (10 to 11).

Description: Maximum recorded length 1400 mm TL. Anterior region of head pointed. Widest measurement at dorsal origin. Ventral region of body forming a straight line. Profile posterior to the dorsal fin decreasing gradually in depth toward the adipose and caudal fins. Dark pigmentation in dorsolateral region and extending to lateral line. Ventral to lateral line, pale, varying from whitish to yellowish. Dark straight vertical bars with pale short lines attached. No loops in specimens smaller than 500 mm SL. Some (3) individuals with spots on dorsal region of head. Caudal, dorsal, and anal fins with few spots. Dusky pigmentation on dorsal region of pectoral fin, pale ventrally. Posterodorsal region of head rough, smooth anteriorly. Anterior nostrils tubular and whitish/yellowish, posterior one with a flap with a whitish edge. Maxillary barbels long, extending beyond pectoral fin, posterior mental barbels (or chin barbels) reaching pelvic fin origin. A comparison with other species is in Table 9. Color and pattern of adults are shown in Fig. 15.

TABLE 5. Descriptive measurements of the body size and shape (in mm), and number of vertebrae for P. punctifer . Number of individuals measured, 41.

Variables mean±SD range
Standard length 266.3±88.2 177.2-578.8
Snout-posterior occipital process 107.3±30.6 73.5-213.5
Snout-posterior margin of the opercle 102.9±30.9 70.8-211.6
Dorsal fin spine length 30.5±10.2 19.5-65.7
Pectoral fin spine length 41.2±13.9 27.1-88.6
Maxillary barbel length 134.1±37.9 86.2-248.5
Anterior chin barbel length 114.5±31 66.3-207.1
Insertion maxillary barbel-eye 41.2±12.3 23.3-82.7
Insertion maxillary barbel-joint pectoral spine 79±24.1 59-162.4
Insertion maxillary barbel-joint dorsal spine 115.3±36.6 77.8-234.7
Eye-joint pectoral spine 41.8±13.7 30.8-90.3
Eye-joint dorsal spine 70.9±22.4 37.6-149.8
Joint pectoral spine-joint dorsal spine 47.3±16 29.9-105.1
Joint pectoral spine-joint first pelvic ray 63±23.2 37.9-151.2
Joint pectoral spine-joint last ray of dorsal fin 61.2±21.2 38.9-136.6
Joint dorsal spine-joint first pelvic ray 46±18.4 30.6-111
Dorsal fin base length 20.5±7.3 13.9-45.5
Joint first pelvic ray-joint last dorsal fin ray 33.8±13.9 20.9-82.3
Joint first pelvic ray-anal fin origin 64.3±22.1 41.7-139.5
Joint first pelvic ray-origin adipose fin 66.3±23 42.6-149.6
Last dorsal fin ray-anal fin origin 77.7±29.2 50.3-169.7
Last dorsal fin ray-adipose fin origin 67.9±24.9 41.7-146.5
Anal fin origin-adipose fin origin 28.7±10.9 19.1-67.5
Anal fin base length 24.8±8 15.5-55
Anal fin origin-adipose fin terminus 29.5±10.1 18.8-68.6
Adipose fin origin-anal fin terminus 34.3±11.8 23.7-76.6
Adipose fin length 20.8±7.4 13.7-46.3
Anal fin terminus-adipose fin terminus 18.2±6.4 12.2-40.4
Anal fin terminus-ventral caudal fin origin 11.2±4 5.7-22.6
Anal fin terminus-dorsal caudal fin origin 19.5±6.5 12.3-40
Adipose fin terminus-ventral caudal fin origin 24.8±8.7 15.4-54.3
Adipose fin terminus-dorsal caudal fin origin 16.6±6.3 9.9-37.2
Caudal peduncle depth 16.5±5.4 11-34.8
Number of vertebrae 39.4±0.83 37-40

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