Wikipedia

Runcinia grammica

Runcinia grammica (Sometimes also referred to as Runcinia Lateralis)[1] is a species of spider of the genus Runcinia. It generally lives in peat bogs, fens, and meadows,[2][3] although it has also been known to inhabit urban areas[4] They usually mature to adulthood in the summer.[3] They have short, broad bodies,[5] which are covered in hair and spines.[6] They have clear muscular corrugation on their sides,[6] and, on small raised bumps on their heads, eight small eyes.[5] Males are usually 2.5–3.5mm in length, females 4-6mm.[3] Unlike many spiders, they do not spin a web of any kind. Instead, they prowl on the ground, as well as climbing plants and flowers, to find their prey.[5] They can move forwards, backwards, and sideways.[5] Runcina grammicas have reportedly been sighted in various areas of Southeastern Spain[7] and Southwestern Portugal.[8][9] They are also known to inhabit Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Caucasus,[10] Italy,[11] India,[6] South Africa, St. Helena,[12][13][14][13] Turkey,[13][14] France,[15] and in the Carpathian Basin[16] They are among the most common species of spiders in Portugal.[14] They are one of the many species preserved at the Mountain Zebra National Park, in South Africa.[17]

A Runcinia grammica with its prey

They are predators,[4] and eat various species of insects.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.faunaeur.org/full_results.php?id=353576
  2. ^ Meadows – Thomisidae. Commanster.eu. Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  3. ^ a b c d [1][dead link]
  4. ^ a b Runcinia grammica – Ecologia, Taxonomia, Morfologia, Distribuição. Naturdata.com. Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  5. ^ a b c d Runcinia grammica. Zipcodezoo.com. Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  6. ^ a b c Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Volume 103, Issues 1–2, published 2004, page 124
  7. ^ Data Use Agreement – GBIF Portal. Us.mirror.gbif.org (22 February 2007). Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  8. ^ Portugal Spider Catalogue. Ennor.org. Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  9. ^ http://www.european-arachnology.org/proceedings/18th/ekosup3.pdf
  10. ^ Runcinia grammica (C. L. Koch, 1837). Caucasus-spiders.info. Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  11. ^ Runcinia grammica. Comune.pisa.it. Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  12. ^ 2008 Annual Checklist : Runcinia grammica (C. L. Koch, 1837). Catalogue of Life (5 January 2008). Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  13. ^ a b c http://jbes.uludag.edu.tr/PDFDOSYALAR/mak-6.pdf
  14. ^ a b c http://www.european-arachnology.org/proceedings/22nd/28_Topcu.pdf
  15. ^ [2][dead link]
  16. ^ http://www.nki.hu/arachnol/tartalom/Irodalom/Bogya%20et%20al.%201999%20Spec%20composition%20in%20apple.pdf
  17. ^ http://koedoe.co.za/index.php/koedoe/article/viewFile/113/115
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