The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Carroll, R. H. (1988). Vertebrate paleontology and evolution. W. H. Freeman & Co. New York.
  • Forey, P. L. (1980). Latimeria: a paradoxical fish. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B, 208, 369-384.
  • Gardiner, B. G. (1984). The relationships of placoderms. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 4, 379-395.
  • Goujet, D. (1984). Placoderm interrelationships: a new interpretation, with a short review of placoderm classification. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 107, 211-241.
  • Jarvik, E. (1977).The systematic position of acanthodian fishes. In Problems in vertebrate evolution (ed. S. M. Andrews, R. S. Miles and A. D. Walker), pp. 199-225. Academic Press, London.
  • Lambert, G. (2005). Invasive Ascidians: A Growing Global Problem. 2005 International Invasive Sea Squirt Conference.
  • Mallatt, J. (1984). Early vertebrate evolution: pharyngeal structure and the origin of gnathostomes. Journal of Zoology, 204, 169-183.
  • Miles, R. S. (1973). Relationships of acanthodians. In Interrelationships of fishes (ed. P. H. Greenwood, R. S. Miles, and C. Patterson). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, Supplement 1, 53, 63-103.
  • Schultze, H. P. (1993). Patterns of diversity in the skull of jawed fishes. In The skull (ed. J. Hanken and B. K. Hall), Vol. 2, pp. 189-254. University of Chicago Press.
  • WoRMS (2015). Gnathostomata. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Young, G. C. (1986). The relationships of placoderm fishes. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 88, 1-57.


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