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Although much remains unknown about the life cycle and biology of the cestode (tapeworm) Sparganum proliferum, genetic studies have shown it to be a distinct species and not a form of S. erinaceieuropaei, as had beeen proposed (Miyadera et al. 2001; Okamoto et al. 2007). Infection with this tapeworm can cause sparganosis in humans (Centers for Disease Control Parasites and Health website).