Overview

Distribution

Furrow spiders are a holartic species commonly found throughout North America, from northern Mexico, throughout the United States and into Canada, as well as southern and eastern Alaska. This species is also ubiquitous throughout Europe and western Asia. Smaller distributions exist in the Korean and Kamchatka penninsulas, eastern China, and Japan, as well as in parts of Africa including northeastern Algeria and Egypt. Single records also exist from Australia, Greenland, and Iceland.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); palearctic (Native ); oriental (Native ); australian (Introduced )

Other Geographic Terms: holarctic

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

These orb weaving spiders have large, bulbous, oval-shaped abdomens, which are dorsoventrally flattened. The abdomen ranges in color including black, grey, red and olive, and the carapace features a lighter colored, arrow shaped pattern that points towards the cephalothorax. Their legs have a striped pattern matching the carapace and are covered in large hairs (macrosetae). The two pairs of forward legs are very long (typically equal to the entire body length) while their rear legs are shorter. Males tend to be smaller and lighter in color than females, ranging in size from 5 to 9 mm in length, while females range from 6 to 14 mm. Legspans for both sexes may range from 18 to 35 mm.

Range mass: .1 to .3 g.

Average mass: .23 g.

Range length: 5 to 14 mm.

Average length: 7 mm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; bilateral symmetry ; venomous

Sexual Dimorphism: female larger; sexes colored or patterned differently; female more colorful

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Furrow spiders are commonly found in moist areas near bodies of water or areas of dense vegetation. Man-made structures like barns, houses, and bridges also make ideal habitats for these spiders as they provide suitable coverage from the sun.

Range elevation: 2 to 700 m.

Average elevation: 300 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: taiga ; savanna or grassland ; forest

Wetlands: marsh

Other Habitat Features: urban ; suburban ; agricultural ; riparian

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

These spiders are primarily insectivores. They use varying sizes of orb webs to capture prey during the day; prey items typically include damselflies (Platycnemis pennipes), gnats, and common mosquitoes (Culex pipiens). Like many arachnids, this species produces a venom in the anterior prosoma within a specialized gland which is connected to the chelicerae via small canals. Each chelicera has four pairs of teeth. Once snared and entangled within the orb web, furrow spiders wrap their prey in silk and immobilize it, injecting venom through their chelicerae, and transport it off the web. Digestive enzymes break down the prey's internal organs into a fluid form for consumption, leaving very little waste for excretion. Larger prey are stored in order to give digestive enzymes ample time to act.

Animal Foods: insects

Foraging Behavior: stores or caches food

Primary Diet: carnivore (Insectivore )

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Furrow spiders are primarily predators of small insects and bugs. Their webs may keep populations of these animals in check, especially in man-made settings like barns, houses, and bridges.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Many birds feed on these spiders, especially if they are not well hidden during the day. Larger insects such as black and yellow mud daubers (Sceliphron caementarium) are also predators of adult furrow spiders, while flesh fly larvae (Sarcophaga sexpunctata)are known predators of their egg cocoons.

Known Predators:

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Animal / predator
larva of Sarcophaga sexpunctata is predator of egg cocoon of Larinioides cornutus

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Furrow spiders have a lower row of 6 eyes, paired horizontally across their heads, and an additional pair of eyes located directly above the center of the lower row. Females produce pheromones during mating season, which are detected by males through chemoreceptors. These spiders also are extremely sensitive to vibrations that they sense using macrosetate and filiform hairs along their legs (filiform hairs are also located on their abdomens). Small receptors called slit sensilla are arranged along their exoskeletons, detecting any pressure against their bodies.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: pheromones ; vibrations

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; vibrations ; chemical

  • Foelix, R. 2011. Biology of Spiders. New York: Oxford University Press.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Cycle

Once eggs are fertilized by the male, female furrow spiders hide their egg sacs within large web cocoons on leaves. Fertilized eggs hatch in the cocoon within a month. Hatched spiderlings remain in the protective cocoon for two to three months until they reach maturity. When they have fully matured, spiderlings disperse in search of foraging opportunities.

  • Howell, M., R. Jenkees. 2004. Spiders of the Eastern US, A Photographic Guide. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson College Division.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

Furrow spiders are capable of surviving cold winter seasons. Although they most commonly reach maturity during the spring, they may reach maturity at any time during the year. These spiders may live up to two years.

Typical lifespan

Status: wild:
1 to 2 years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
1 years.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Females furrow spiders produce a silken cocoon that can fit both male and female inside during copulation. Once it is made, females reside in this cocoon and emit pheromones, which males sense through chemoreceptors. Females carry unfertilized eggs inside the cocoon and, once inside the cocoon, males insert sperm into females using their pedipalps. Fertilized eggs, which are yellow in color, are then nested within an egg sac, which the female will place in a protected location such as the underside of a leaf. Further copulation may occur if a female has additional unfertilized eggs after mating once, provided a male is still present and protecting the hidden egg sac. Males are sometimes (but not always) killed and eaten following successive mating; regardless, they typically die soon after mating. Females die following egg laying, sometimes surviving until spiderlings have hatched from their cocoon.

Mating System: monogamous

When females are well fed, they focus on creating more eggs for reproduction rather than web construction. When food is difficult to find, no resources are put into producing unfertilized eggs or a silken cocoon for reproduction. Mating can occur from spring through fall and is usually only limited by resource availability.

Breeding interval: Furrow spiders breed only once in their lifetimes.

Breeding season: Breeding occurs from late spring to early fall.

Range number of offspring: 3 to 5.

Range gestation period: 1 to 1 months.

Range time to independence: 1 to 4 months.

Average time to independence: 3 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 4 to 18 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 6 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 4 to 18 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 6 months.

Key Reproductive Features: semelparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); oviparous

Before any mating or egg fertilization takes place, females create a silken retreat in a protected location where eggs will be placed. After fertilization, mating pairs coexist and protect the cocoon for a time; both parents die at some point following copulation and egg laying, although survival time varies.

Parental Investment: male parental care ; female parental care ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Protecting: Male, Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Protecting: Female)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Larinioides cornutus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 34 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ARINI-ID-S-C-RN-T-S-C-I------------------------------------------ACTTTATATTTAATTTTTGGTGCTTGAGCTGCTATAGTTGGGACTGCTATG---AGAGTATTAATTCGAGTTGAATTAGGTCAACCTGGGAGATTTATAGGAGAT---GATCAATTATATAACGTTATTGTTACTGCTCATGCTTTTGTAATGATTTTTTTTATAGTTATACCTATTTTAATTGGAGGTTTTGGAAATTGATTAGTTCCATTAATA---TTAGGAGCACCTGATATAGCTTTTCCTCGTATAAATAATTTAAGGTTTTGATTACTTCCACCATCATTATTTTTATTAATTGTTTCATCAATAGTAGAAATAGGAGTAGGAGCTGGATGAACTGTTTATCCACCTTTAGCTAGATTAGAAGGTCATGCTGGAAGGTCAGTTGACTTT---GCTATTTTTTCATTACATTTAGCTGGGGCTTCATCAATTATAGGGGCTATTAATTTTATTTCAACAATTATTAACATACGTTTTTACGGGATAACTATAGAAAAGGTTCCTTTATTTGTATGATCAGTATTGATTACTGCTGTATTATTACTTCTTTCATTACCAGTATTAGCTGGG---GCTATTACAATATTATTAACGGATCGAAATTTTAATACTTCTTTTTTTGACCCTTCTGGGGGAGGTGATCCTATTTTATTTCAACATCTA------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Larinioides cornutus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 27
Specimens with Barcodes: 212
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

This species is common throughout its range and currently has no special conservation status.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

  • IUCN, 2012. "The IUCN Redlist of Threatened Species" (On-line). Accessed January 20, 2013 at www.iucnredlist.org.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Although venomous, these spiders only bite humans if their webs are threatened and, even then, bites are only superficial and do not typically require medical attention. There are no known adverse effects of furrow spiders on humans.

Negative Impacts: injures humans (bites or stings, venomous )

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Furrow spiders provide some assistance through their predation on insects considered to be pests by humans.

Positive Impacts: controls pest population

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Larinioides cornutus

Larinioides cornutus, the furrow spider,[1] is an orb-weaver spider with Holarctic distribution.

Females reach a body length of about 6–14 mm, males up to 5–9 mm. Leg spans range from 18–35 mm.[1]

These spiders are most often found in moist areas, especially near water. The web is built between grass or in low shrubbery. They hide during the day in a silken retreat that opens at the bottom, masked with plant and animal matter and leave it during the night. The web is remade in the evening.[2]

The male lives with the female during mating time, which is in autumn, and again in spring. The female produces three to five yellow egg sacs during the summer.[2]

There is possibly a distinct species L. folium which is very similar, but occurs in dry habitat.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Weber, Larry. (2003) Spiders of the North Woods. Duluth, MN:Kollath+Stensaas Publ. pp.88–89.
  2. ^ a b c Bellmann, H. (1997). Kosmos-Atlas Spinnentiere Europas. Kosmos.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!