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 Habit: lichenized; Thallus: crustose, composed of discrete, scattered to crowded granules or areoles; areoles: rounded to irregular, convex, 0.1-0.3(-0.4) mm wide; surface: bright yellow to greenish yellow, coarse; Apothecia: biatorine, sessile, 0.3-0.6 mm in diam.; disc: darker yellow than the thallus, convex; margin: not lecanorine; exciple: composed of branched and anatomosing hyphae radiating towards the margin and consisting of ±rectangular cells; epihymenium: reddish yellow to yellow-brown; hymenium: hyaline, (45-)50-60 µm tall; paraphyses: simple, 1.5-2.5 µm wide medially, with cylindrical to tapering tips up to 2.5 µm wide; asci: clavate, 31-44 x 12-17 µm, 8-spored; ascospores: hyaline, simple to rarely 1-septate, narrowly ellipsoid, (8.5-)11-13.5(-15) x (3.5-)4-5(-5.5) µm; Pycnidia: sparse, appearing as orange-yellow dots on the thallus; conidia: hyaline, narrowly ellipsoid, 2.5-4 x 1-1.5 µm, or hyaline, oblong, (5.5-)6-9(-10) x 3-4.5(-5) µm; Spot tests: K+ pale red, KC-, C-; Secondary metabolites: calycin, pulvinic acid lactone, and vulpinic and pulvinic acids.; Substrate and ecology: on coniferous bark (Abies, Pinus, Pseudotsuga) and rarely wood (Juniperus) in fairly open forests up to 2700 m; World distribution: western North America (California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, and Oregon); Sonoran distribution: not currently known but may extend to the coastal mountains of southern California.; Notes: Candelariella biatorina with its truly biatorine apothecia and yellow thallus is nearly unique within Candelariella. Only on wood is it likely to be confused with the granular C. deppeanae, which has lecanorine apothecia. Among all Candelariellae, C. biatorina appears unique in having two types of conidia. 


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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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