The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Comstock, J.H. (revised and edited by W.J. Gertsch). 1948. The Spider Book, Comstock Publishing Company, Ithaca, New York.
  • Howell, W.M. and R.L. Jenkins. 2004. Spiders of the Eastern United States: a Photographic Guide. Pearson Education, Boston.
  • Kaston, B.J. 1978. How to Know the Spiders, 3rd edition. Wm. C. Brown Company, Dubuque, Iowa.
  • Platnick, Norman I. 2011. website. The World Spider Catalog, v.11.0. American Museum of Natural History. Database built by Robert J. Raven from the files underlying the website at DOI: 10.5531/db.iz.0001
  • Townley, M.A. and E.K. Tillinghast. 1988. Orb Web Recycling in Araneus cavaticus (Araneae, Araneidae) with an Emphasis on the Adhesive Spiral Component, Gabamide. Journal of Arachnology 16(3): 303-319.


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