The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 2009. Spider web glue spins society toward new biobased adhesives. EurekAlert! [Internet],
  • Agnarsson I; Boutry C; Wong SC; Baji A; Dhinojwala A; Sensenig AT; Blackledge TA. 2009. Supercontraction forces in spider dragline silk depend on hydration rate. Zoology. 112(5): 325-331.
  • Agnarsson I; Dhinojwala A; Sahni V; Blackledge TA. 2009. Spider silk as a novel high performance biomimetic muscle driven by humidity. Journal of Experimental Biology. 212: 1990-1994.
  • Blackledge TA; Boutry C; Wong SC; Baji A; Dhinojwala A; Sahni V; Agnarsson I. 2009. How super is supercontraction? Persistent versus cyclic responses to humidity in spider dragline silk. Journal of Experimental Biology. 212: 1981-1989.
  • Bland E. 2009. Spider silk used as artificial muscle. Discovery News [Internet],
  • Breene, R. G., D. Allen Dean, G. B. Edwards, Blain Hebert, Herbert W. Levi, Gail Manning, et al. 2003. Common Names of Arachnids, Fifth Edition. 42
  • Brown, S. 1985. Mating Behavior of the Golden-Orb-Weaving Spider, Nephila clavipes: II. Sperm Capacitation, Sperm Competition, and Fecundity. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 99(2): 167-175.
  • Choresh O; Bayarmagnae B; Lewis RV. 2009. Spider web glue: two proteins expressed from opposite strands of the same DNA sequence. Biomacromolecules. 10(10): 2852–2856.
  • Christenson, T., S. Brown, P. Wenzl, E. Hill, K. Goist. 1985. Mating Behavior of the Golden-Orb-Weaving Spider, Nephila clavipes: I. Female Receptivity and Male Courtship. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 99(2): 160-166.
  • Higgens, L. 1992. Developmental Changes in Barrier Web Structure Under Different Levels of Predation Risk in Nephia Clavipes. Journal of Insect Behavior, 5(5): 635-655.
  • Kaston, B. J. 1978. How to Know the Spiders. Third Edition. Wm. C. Brown Comp. Publishers. 272 p.
    Levi, H. W. & V.R. De von Eickstedt. 1989. The Nephilinae Spiders of the Neotropics (Araneae, Tetragnathidae). Mem. Inst. Butantan. 51(2):43-56.
    Weems, H. V. & G. B. Edwards, Jr. 1978. The Golden Silk Spider, Nephila clavipes (Linnaeus). Ent. Circular. 193. 4 p.
  • Opell BD; Karinshak SE; Sigler MA. 2011. Humidity affects the extensibility of an orb-weaving spider’s viscous thread droplets. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 214(17): 2988-2993.
  • Palmgren, P. (1980): Some comments on the anatomy of spiders. Ann. Zool. Fennici 17, 161-173: 162-162, URL:
  • Platnick, Norman I. 2011. website. The World Spider Catalog, v.11.0. American Museum of Natural History. Database built by Robert J. Raven from the files underlying the website at DOI: 10.5531/db.iz.0001
  • Unger, E. 1996. "Moleculer Spider Silk Technology" (On-line). Accessed March 21, 2000 at
  • Vargas, A. 1997. Geographic Distribution of Nephila clavipes. Caribbean Journal of Science, 33(1-2): 114-115.


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