Antirrhineae are one of the twelve tribes of the Plantaginaceae family. The tribe contains about 29 genera in that family, of which the largest is Linaria, and about 320 species of which 150 are in Linaria. The type genus is Antirrhinum L. (Fernández-Mazuecos 2013).


The flowers are tubular with a basal appendix (spur, gibbous or saccate). Other characters include poricidal capsule dehiscence and the possession of iridoid glycosides.[2]



While the Antirrhineae have long been considered a distinct group, there has also been a recognition of distinct subdivisions. For instance Rothmaler identified five subtribes on morphological lines:[3] [4]

  • Linariinae (11 genera)
  • Maurandyinae (5)
  • Gambeliinae (3)
  • Mohaveinae (1)
  • Anarrhinae (1)

However subsequent phylogenetic analyses have produced quite different lineages, such as the six of Vargas (2004), which they labelled as groups:[2]

  • Linaria group
  • Anarrhinum
  • Maurandya
  • Chaenorrhinum
  • Antirrhinum
  • Schweinfurthia

However they also noted profound morphological diversity amongst the Antirrhinum group, in accordance with the proliferation of new genera.

Fernández-Mazuecos et al. (2013), also using phylogenetics, identified six clades within the tribe, similar to those of Vargas et al., which they labelled as:

  • Cymbalaria (9 genera)
  • Anarrhinum (2)
  • Chaenorhinum (3)
  • Antirrhinum (9)
  • Galvezia (3)
  • Linaria (2)

They were able to assign all the genera in the tribe to one of these clades.


Genera (29) usually included are shown here by clade:

Although GRIN includes Lafuentea Lag. in the tribe,[5] in this analysis it was a sister to the Antirrhineae. as also noted by Albach (2005)[6] For the time being it should be considered an outgroup.


  1. ^ Fl. Belg.: 34 (1827)
  2. ^ a b Vargas P, JA Rosselló, R Oyama, J Güemes. 2004 Molecular evidence for naturalness of genera in the tribe Antirrhineae (Scrophulariaceae) and three independent evolutionary lineages from the New World and the Old. Plant Syst Evol 249:151–172.
  3. ^ Rothmaler W. (1943) Zur Gliederung der Antirrhineae. Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 52: 16–39.
  4. ^ Rothmaler W. (1956) Taxonomische Monographie der Gattung Antirrhinum. Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 136: 1–124.
  5. ^ "GRIN Genera of Plantaginaceae tribe Antirrhineae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  6. ^ Albach, D. C.; Meudt, H. M.; Oxelman, B. (2005). "Piecing together the "new" Plantaginaceae". American Journal of Botany 92 (2): 297–315. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.2.297. PMID 21652407. 


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