The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.
- Breene, R. G., D. Allen Dean, G. B. Edwards, Blain Hebert, Herbert W. Levi, Gail Manning, et al. 2003. Common Names of Arachnids, Fifth Edition. 42
- Breland Pest Control, "Black Widow Spider" (On-line). Accessed February 28, 2002 at http://personalwebs.myriad.net/bugboy/blackwid.htm.
- Carico, J. 1994. The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book, Inc..
- Comstock, J. 1948. The Spider Book. Ithaca, New York: Comstock Publishing.
- Desert USA Magazine, 2004. "Black Widow Spiders" (On-line). Accessed February 28, 2002 at http://www.desertusa.com/july97/du_bwindow.html.
- Emerton, J. 1961. The Common Spiders of the United States. New York: Dover.
- Farrand, J. 1988. Familiar Insects and Spiders. New York: Chanticleer Press.
- Foelix, R. 1996. Biology of Spiders. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Gertsch, W. 1979. American Spiders. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
- Goodnight, C., M. Goodnight. 1997. Encyclopedia Americana. Danbury, Connecticut: Grolier Incorporated.
- Hillyard, P. 1994. The Book of the Spider. New York: Random House, Inc..
- Howell, W.M. and R.L. Jenkins. 2004. Spiders of the Eastern United States: a Photographic Guide. Pearson Education, Boston.
- Kaston, B. 1953. How to Know the Spiders. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company.
- Kaston, B.J. 1978. How to Know the Spiders, 3rd edition. Wm. C. Brown Company, Dubuque, Iowa.
- Koehler, P. "Spiders" (On-line). Accessed February 28, 2002 at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/BODY_MG206.
- Levine, J., K. Miller. 1991. Biology. Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath and Company.
- Lyon, W. "Black Widow Spider" (On-line). Accessed February 28, 2002 at http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/2000/2061A.html.
- Milne, L., M. Milne. 1990. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc..
- Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at http://animaldiversity.org. http://www.animaldiversity.org
- National Integrated Pest Management Network North Carolina State University, "Black Widow Spider" (On-line). Accessed February 28, 2002 at http://ipm.ncsu.edu/AG369/notes/black_widow_spider.html.
- Pechenik, J. 1991. Biology of the Invertebrates. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown.
- Platnick, Norman I. 2011. website. The World Spider Catalog, v.11.0. American Museum of Natural History. Database built by Robert J. Raven from the files underlying the website at http://research.amnh.org/iz/spiders/catalog/ DOI: 10.5531/db.iz.0001
- Preston-Mafham, K., R. Preston-Mafham. 1984. Spiders of the World. New York: Blandford Press Ltd..
- Preston-Mafham, K., R. Preston-Mafham. 1996. The Natural History of Spiders. Ramsbury, Marlborough: The Crowood Press Ltd..
- Shuttlesworth, D. 1959. The Story of Spiders. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc..
- Smith, R. 1980. Ecology and Field Biology. New York: Harper & Row Publishers.
- Snow, K. 1970. The Arachnids: An Introduction. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Vetter, R.S. and G.K. Isbister. 2008. Medical aspects of spider bites. Annual Review of Entomology 53: 409-29.
- Wallace, R., G. Sanders, R. Ferl. 1991. Biology, The Science of Life. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc..
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