The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Breene, R. G., D. Allen Dean, G. B. Edwards, Blain Hebert, Herbert W. Levi, Gail Manning, et al. 2003. Common Names of Arachnids, Fifth Edition. 42
  • Breland Pest Control, "Black Widow Spider" (On-line). Accessed February 28, 2002 at
  • Carico, J. 1994. The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book, Inc..
  • Comstock, J. 1948. The Spider Book. Ithaca, New York: Comstock Publishing.
  • Desert USA Magazine, 2004. "Black Widow Spiders" (On-line). Accessed February 28, 2002 at
  • Emerton, J. 1961. The Common Spiders of the United States. New York: Dover.
  • Farrand, J. 1988. Familiar Insects and Spiders. New York: Chanticleer Press.
  • Foelix, R. 1996. Biology of Spiders. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Gertsch, W. 1979. American Spiders. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  • Goodnight, C., M. Goodnight. 1997. Encyclopedia Americana. Danbury, Connecticut: Grolier Incorporated.
  • Hillyard, P. 1994. The Book of the Spider. New York: Random House, Inc..
  • Kaston, B. 1953. How to Know the Spiders. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company.
  • Koehler, P. "Spiders" (On-line). Accessed February 28, 2002 at
  • Levine, J., K. Miller. 1991. Biology. Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath and Company.
  • Lyon, W. "Black Widow Spider" (On-line). Accessed February 28, 2002 at
  • Milne, L., M. Milne. 1990. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc..
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • National Integrated Pest Management Network North Carolina State University, "Black Widow Spider" (On-line). Accessed February 28, 2002 at
  • Pechenik, J. 1991. Biology of the Invertebrates. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown.
  • Platnick, Norman I. 2011. website. The World Spider Catalog, v.11.0. American Museum of Natural History. Database built by Robert J. Raven from the files underlying the website at DOI: 10.5531/db.iz.0001
  • Preston-Mafham, K., R. Preston-Mafham. 1984. Spiders of the World. New York: Blandford Press Ltd..
  • Preston-Mafham, K., R. Preston-Mafham. 1996. The Natural History of Spiders. Ramsbury, Marlborough: The Crowood Press Ltd..
  • Shuttlesworth, D. 1959. The Story of Spiders. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc..
  • Smith, R. 1980. Ecology and Field Biology. New York: Harper & Row Publishers.
  • Snow, K. 1970. The Arachnids: An Introduction. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Wallace, R., G. Sanders, R. Ferl. 1991. Biology, The Science of Life. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc..


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