The type description stated the species as occurring in Gooty, which is wrong since although the animal was caught in the railway timber yard in Gooty, the specimen could have come from the Eastern Ghats, which is at least 100 km away. Molur et al. (in press) rediscovered the species after 102 years in 2001 in a highly disturbed forest between Nandyal and Giddalur. Other surveys have not indicated the presence of this easily-identifiable species in any other locality. However, traders have put up this spider on sale after collecting some adults from the said area or nearby. Since information on their collection area is not available, it is presumed that they could have collected only from the nearby location and not from the protected Gundlabrahmeshwaram Wildlife Sanctuary.
Habitat and Ecology
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Poecilotheria metallica
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
In 2012, the Gooty Sapphire was included among the world's 100 most threatened species, in a report by the IUCN Species Survival Commission and the Zoological Society of London.
- Fiona Harvey (September 10, 2012). "The expendables? World's 100 most endangered species listed". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2012/sep/11/100-most-endangered-species-listed. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
- Jonathan E. M. Baillie & Ellen R. Butcher (2012). Priceless or Worthless? (PDF). Zoological Society of London. ISBN 978-0-900881-67-1. http://static.zsl.org/files/priceless-or-worthless-final-wq-2040-2050.pdf
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2009)|
Poecilotheria metallica is a species of tarantula. It reflects brilliant metallic blue color. Like others in its genus it exhibits an intricate fractal-like pattern on the abdomen. The species' natural habitat is deciduous forest in Andra Pradesh, in central southern India. P. metallica was first discovered in the town of Gooty, a fact reflected in some of its common names: Gooty sapphire ornamental tree spider, Gooty sapphire, and Gooty tarantula. Other common names are metallic tarantula, peacock parachute spider, peacock tarantula, or salepurgu.
P. metallica is found only in a small area of less than 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi), a reserve forest that is nonetheless highly disturbed. Surveys of adjacent forest have failed to observe this species. The type specimen was discovered in a railway timber yard in Gooty about 100 km southwest of its known range, but it is believed to have been transported there by train.
P. metallica's behaviour parallels that of many arboreal spiders. In the wild the P. metallica live in holes of tall trees where they make asymmetric funnel webs. Their primary prey consists of various flying insects, which they seize in flight and paralyze. It is not unknown for the spiders of this genus to live communally when territory, i.e. number of holes per tree, is limited.
This species is desired by many tarantula enthusiasts, with adults sometimes pricing above $500 in the United States. Demand for 2-week-old unsexed spiderlings at US$200 is high, and there are examples of their being sold for much more.[when?] Prices can vary in other locations, particularly Europe. Like many spiders, the gender can influence price; females live for about 12 years, 3 to 4 times longer than males, making them more expensive. Also females are considered to be more useful for breeding, making demand higher. They are hardy, relatively fast-growing spiders that are generally fed crickets, but can take on anything from a common fruit fly when spiderlings, to a new-born (pinky) mouse or anole when adults. They measure between 15 to 20 cm (6 to 8 in) in legspan when fully grown. In captivity, humid environments with temperatures between 18 to 24 °C (64 to 75 °F) and a humidity level of 75 to 85% are preferred.
P. metallica is classified as critically endangered by the IUCN Red List. The primary threat to the species' survival is habitat degradation and loss to logging and firewood harvesting. Amplifying the severity of this threat is the extremely limited range of P. metallica. Another threat identified by IUCN assessors is specimen collection for the pet trade.
The species' numbers are not known, but the combination of its small natural range and the threats in that area indicates a declining population trend.
There has never been a recorded human death from any tarantula bite; however, this species is considered to have a medically significant bite, with venom that may cause intense pain, judging from the experience of keepers bitten by other spiders from this genus. They can move rapidly and may defend themselves when cornered, although they are more likely to attempt to scurry away than fight. Venom effects consist of a small heart rate increase followed by sweating, headache, stinging, cramping and swelling. Effects can last for sometimes one week.
- Molur, S.; Daniel, B.A.; Siliwal, M. (2008). "Poecilotheria metallica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 3.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- Gabriel, R. (2002). "Notes and Observations Regarding the Bite of Poecilotheria pederseni". British Tarantula Society Journal 17 (2): 61–64.
- Schmidt, G. (1988). "Wie gefährlich sind Vogelspinnenbisse ?" [How dangerous are bird spider bites?]. Deutsches Ärzteblatt (in German) 85 (28/29): 1424–1425.(u. a. information relates to P. fasciata.)