Overview

Distribution

Peromyscus aztecus occurs in the mid- to high elevations in many mountain ranges in the highlands of Mexico and Central America. Aztec mice have been found in southwestern Jalisco, Michoacan, and central Veracruz, through the volcanic belt. These mice are found in the Mexican States of Puebla, Morelos, Hidalgo, Guerrero, Oaxaca, and Ciapas, as well as into Central America.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

  • Vazquez, L., G. Cameron, R. Medellin. 2001. Peromyscus aztecus. Mammalian Species, 649: 1-4.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range Description

This species has a disjunct range, occurring in humid montane and cloud forests in central Veracruz, central Guerrero, through Oaxaca and east Chiapas, México, to Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador (Musser and Carleton 2005). It can be found from 500 to 3,200 m (Carleton 1979, in Reid 1997).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Peromyscus aztecus is a medium sized member of the genus Peromyscus. Individuals weigh between 22 and 36 g, and are from 197 to 260 mm in length. The fur is a pale ochre with black dorsally. The flanks are reddish, and the under parts are light buff. A black ring around the eye is present. The feet are white. The tail is bicolored with a white tip and is about as long as the body. Other measurements include: hind foot, 22.5 to 29 mm; ear, 15.5 to 21.5 mm; average length of skull, 33.3 mm; and the average size of the rostrum, 13.8 mm

Range mass: 22 to 36 g.

Range length: 197 to 260 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; heterothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Aztec mice occur at elevations between 1,000 m to 2,700 m. Vegetation types in their habitat are variable, and dependon the location. In Michoacan, the vegetation consists of montane, boreal coniferous forests. In Jalisco, pine/oak habitat and cloud forest cover the area. In Guerrero, P. aztecus occupies the cloud, oak, and pine/oak habitat types. Juniper forests are the used area in volcanic regions. These rodents often occur in fields with poor cover and abandoned agricultural fields.

Range elevation: 1000 to 2700 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest ; scrub forest

Other Habitat Features: agricultural ; riparian

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This mouse is found in temperate montane regions. It favors edges and secondary growth of wet highland forest (Reid 1997). It can live in disturbed habitat of coffee and sugar cane plantations (Ceballos and Oliva 2005).

It is largely insectivorous and includes ants, weevils, crickets, and beetles in the diet; a few seeds (Solanum sp. and others), and green plant material are also eaten (Alvarez et al. 1984, in Reid 1997).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

The diet of P. aztecus consists of many different things depending on their location and time of year. In Guerrero, they eat primarily grasses and seeds. In Jalisco, they eat monocot seeds in the dry-hot and cold seasons, and then dicot leaves in the wet season. Some other forms of food for P. aztecus may include insects, and dicot fruits.

Animal Foods: insects

Plant Foods: leaves; seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit

Foraging Behavior: stores or caches food

Primary Diet: omnivore

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Aztec mice serve as food for many different predators. One negative role that P. aztecus may play in relationship to the ecosystem is the fact that they may retard forest regeneration. They are a force of destruction to seeds, specifically coniferous seeds.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Possible predators of P. aztecus include barn owls (Tyto alba), coyotes (Canis latrans), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and weasels (Mustela frenata). Aztec mice avoid predation by blending into their habitat, or they may run into burrows or crevices.

Known Predators:

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Known predators

Peromyscus aztecus is prey of:
Tyto alba
Mustela frenata
Lynx rufus
Canis latrans

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Known prey organisms

Peromyscus aztecus preys on:
Insecta

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Tactile communication is used when grooming as a friendly interaction, as well as during biting in defense and aggression. Chemical communication is usually related to marking behavior. This involves olfactory methods of recognition. Visual communication is less important in this species because of their nocturnal activity. However, body postures probably communicate intent when two animals meet. These animals can detect movement in little light and see short distances in the dark.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: scent marks

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

In the wild, most individuals probably won't live past 2 years. The longest known record of longevity for Peromyscus in a laboratory is 8 years and 4 month (Peromyscus maniculatus).

Typical lifespan

Status: wild:
0.5 to 2 years.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Aztec mice are monogamous. A male and female will form a pair, and participate in joint rearing of the young.

Mating System: monogamous

Peromyscus aztecus breed throughout the year if it is not too cold or too hot. The peak of the reproductive season is March to July. Individuals become mature enough to mate at about the same time that they develop their sub-adult pelage. The normal gestation period of this species is about 21 to 27 days. The average litter size is reported to be 3.4. Time of weaning is 3 to 4 weeks. The reproductive performance may decline after 3 to 5 litters or when a female reaches about 18 months of age. Sexual behavior includes grooming, driving, mounting, intromission, and ejaculation.

Breeding interval: These mice can breed every month or so while weather conditions permit it.

Breeding season: P. aztecus breeds from March to July.

Average number of offspring: 3.4.

Range gestation period: 21 to 27 days.

Range weaning age: 3 to 4 weeks.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Parental care is most demonstrated by the female. Mother mice provide milk, grooming, and protection for their altricial young until they are able to leave the nest. However, the male of a mated pair may stay at the nesting site to help the rearing of the young. Male parental behavior may include grooming the young and huddling over them to help keep them warm and safe.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement; altricial ; pre-fertilization (Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female)

  • King, J. 1968. Biology of Peromyscus (Rodentia). The American Society of Mammologists.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Peromyscus aztecus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 44
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

Aztec mice are not listed by CITES or IUCN.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Castro-Arellano, I. & Vázquez, E.

Reviewer/s
McKnight, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team) & Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, occurrence in a number of protected areas, and because it does not appear to be under threat and is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
It is locally common (Reid 1997).

Population Trend
Stable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
There are no known major threats. However, deforestation could pose a threat in the future.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no specific conservation measures in place for this species. Occurs in protected areas.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

There are many species of parasites that are found in relationship with the Peromyscus genus: pentastomids, acanthocephala, trematodes, cestodes (tapeworms), nematodes, mites, chiggers, ticks, fleas, lice, and diptera. Many of these parasites carry infectious diseases. Fleas may carry plague as well as typhus.

Negative Impacts: causes or carries domestic animal disease

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

An important role that P. aztcus may play economically for humans is that they may be used for many genetic and physiological studies in labs. They are clean, live well in the lab, are easily fed, and their reproductive rate is very high.

Positive Impacts: research and education

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Aztec mouse

The Aztec mouse (Peromyscus aztecus) is a species of rodents in the family Cricetidae. It is found in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico.

Habitat[edit]

The Aztec mouse lives in temperate and mountainous regions, in the limits of humid highland forests. Its habitat is usually between 500 m and 3200 m above sea level. It is also found in sugar cane and coffee plantations.[1]

Feeding habits[edit]

The Aztec mouse is mainly an insectivore; it eats ants, crickets, beetles, and weevils. Its diet also includes some seeds (notably from the Solanum genus) and green plant material.[1]

Distribution[edit]

The species is found in some disjunct regions: the centers of Veracruz and Guerrero, Oaxaca, and eastern Chiapas in Mexico. It is also found in some regions of Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador.[1]

Conservation status[edit]

The Aztec mouse is not a threatened species. Its conservation status is of least concern because its large distribution, a presumed large population, and its tolerance to various kinds of habitats. Since it lives in protected areas and no threat is apparent, it is unlikely to decline to levels of threatened species.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Castro-Arellano, I. & Vázquez, E. (2008). Peromyscus aztecus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 18 August 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern.
  • Musser, G. G. and M. D. Carleton. 2005. Superfamily Muroidea. pp. 894–1531 in Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
This article incorporates information from this version of the equivalent article on the Portuguese Wikipedia.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!