Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species is known form intermediate elevations in western Panamá (Chiriquí region) and on the Azuero Peninsula (Musser and Carleton 2005). It is known from 1,000 to 1,500 m (Carleton 1989).

The species is known from two disjunct populations, which are being looked at taxonomically (Timm pers. comm.).
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Ecology

Habitat

Panamanian Dry Forests Habitat

This taxon is found in the Panamanian dry forests, but not necessarily limited to this ecoregion. The Panamanian dry forests ecoregion occupies approximately 2000 square miles of coastal and near-coastal areas on the Pacific versant of Panama, around portions of the Gulf of Panama. Plant endemism is intermediate, and vertebrate species richness is quite high in the Panamanian dry forests.This key ecoregion is highly threatened from its extensive ongoing exploitation. Beyond the endemism and species richness, the ecoregion is further significant, since it offers a biological corridor from the moist forests to the coastal mangroves.

Plant endemism is intermediate in value within the Panamanian dry forests, likely elevated due to the (a) isolation of this ecoregion from the surrounding and intervening moist forest habitat; (b) arid conditions which likely enhanced speciation and hence species richness; and (c) absence of prehistoric glaciation, which has extinguished many species in more extreme latitudes.

Many of the plants are well adapted to herbivory defense through such morphologies as spiny exteriors and other features. Forest canopies are typically less than twenty meters, with a few of the highest species exceeding that benchmark. Caesalpinia coriaria is a dominant tree in the Azuero Peninsula portion of the dry forests, while Lozania pittieri is a dominant tree in the forests near Panama City. The vegetative palette is well adapted to the dry season, where water is a precious commodity.

Faunal species richness is high in the Panamanian dry forests, as in much of Mesoamerica, with a total of 519 recorded vertebrates alone within the Panamanian dry forests. Special status reptiles in the Panamanian dry forests include the American  Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus), the Lower Risk/Near Threatened Brown Wood Turtle (Rhinoclemmys annulata), the Lower Risk/Near Threatened Common Caiman (Caiman crocodilus), the Lower Risk/Near Threatened Common Slider (Trachemys scripta), and the Critically Endangered Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). There are two special status amphibian in the ecoregion: the Critically endangered plantation Glass Frog (Hyalinobatrachium colymbiphyllum) and the Vulnerable Camron mushroom-tongued salamander (Bolitoglossa lignicolor).

Threatened mammals found in the Panamanian dry forests include the: Endangered Central American Spider Monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), the Vulnerable Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), the Near Threatened Handley’s Tailless Bat (Anoura cultrata), the Vulnerable Lemurine Night Monkey (Aotus lemurinus), the Near Threatened Margay (Leopardus wiedii), the Near Threatened Yellow Isthmus Rat (Isthmomys flavidus), the Near Threatened White-lipped Peccary (Tayassu pecari), and the Near Threatened Spectral Bat (Vampyrum spectrum). There are two special status bird species occurring in the ecoregion: the Endangered Great Green Macaw (Ara ambiguus) and the Near Threatened Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi).

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in mature forest. Its biology is poorly known; it is nocturnal and terrestrial (Reid 1997).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Reid, F., Woodman, N., Timm, R. Samudio, R. & Pino, J.

Reviewer/s
McKnight, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team) & Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Near Threatened because although its extent of occurrence is less than 20,000 km2, it occurs in several protected areas and the extent and quality of its habitat may be declining only in parts of its range. This species is restricted to mature forest and it appears to no longer occur in one previously known location. This makes it close to qualifying for Vulnerable under the B1 criterion if the decline in known locations continues and if the distribution becomes severely fragmented or restricted to less than 6 locations.
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Population

Population
It is apparently rare and local (Reid 1997). It may no longer occur in the Azuero Peninsula, where it has been looked for recently without success (Reid pers. comm.).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats to this species. In many parts of its range, however, this species may be subject to threats from deforestation, roads, and agriculture.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It found within several protected areas including La Amistad National Park. More information is needed about this species' taxonomy, natural history, populations, and conservation status.
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Wikipedia

Yellow isthmus rat

The Yellow Isthmus Rat (Isthmomys flavidus) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae. It is found only in Panama. It was discovered by W. W. Brown, Jr. on the southern slope of Volcan de Chiriqui (8° 49' N, 82° 32' W). He found it common in the upland forest from 1000 to 1500m, but no specimens were taken above or below these elevations (Bangs 1902; Goldman 1920; Goodwin 1946). Museum records specify two isolated populations in western Panama, one at Cerro Colorado where R. Pine et al. collected in 1980 (8° 31' 60N, 81° 49' 0W) and at Cerro Hoya on the Azuero Peninsula by C. Handley in 1962 (7° 23' N, 80° 38' W). The presence of I. flavidus or a closely allied form in Costa Rica is probable (Goodwin 1946), however, no specimens have been reported. There are no currently known fossil records of Isthmomys (McKenna and Bell 1997).

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ Reid, F., Woodman, N., Timm, R. Samudio, R. & Pino, J. (2008). Isthmomys flavidus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 18 Jule 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of near threatened.
  • Musser, G. G. and M. D. Carleton. 2005. Superfamily Muroidea. pp. 894–1531 in Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.


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