Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Distributed in steppes and semi-deserts in Kazakhstan, Tuva and Transbaikalia (Russia), W and C Mongolia, and N China (Heilongjiang, Nei Mongol, Xinjiang).
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Geographic Range

Originally identified by O. Thomas in 1905, Phodopus campbelli, commonly known as Campbell’s hamsters or Djungarian hamsters, is a native inhabitant of the steppes and deserts of inner Mongolia and northeastern China.

Heavily inhabited areas of Mongolia include, but are not limited to; the Altai Mountains, Transbaikalia, Nei Mongol, and Tuvinskaya (Tuva) Autonomous Region. Bordering territories in northern China, the Heilungkiang and Hebei provinces more specifically, also maintain dense populations of Phodopus campbelli.

Biogeographic Regions: palearctic (Native )

  • Thomas, O. 1905. A new Cricetulus from Mongolia. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 6: 322-323.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Phodopus campbelli is very small in size and the pelage is short and silky. The underside of the animal is covered in soft, buff, light grey fur and the dorsal portions, including the head, are woody brown in color. The underfur is quite short and is a dark slate grey. A defined charcoal stripe runs from between the ears to the tail. The pads of all digits, and the small tail, are covered in silky white fur. Additionally, Campbell’s hamsters, like other members of the subfamily Cricetinae, possess large internal cheek pouches that terminate above the scapula. Males are larger than females.

Phodopus campbelli is often confused with Phodopus sungorus, Siberian hamsters. However, there are several physical characteristics that distinguish the two species. The ears of Phodopus campbelli are generally smaller than those of Phodopus sungorus. The mid-dorsal stripe of the Campbell’s hamster is both thin and defined and the area where the dorsal fur meets the ventral fur is a creamy light yellow. Moreover, the underfur of Phodopus campbelli is dark grey, whereas that of Phodopus sungorus is white.

Documentations of region-dependant color variations have been collected from several populations of Phodopus campbelli native to the Chuisaya Steppes. Campbell’s hamsters from this area are slightly greyer in color and possess a shorter mid-dorsal stripe.

Average mass: 23.4 g.

Range length: 80 to 103 mm.

Average length: 102 mm.

Range basal metabolic rate: 1.63 +/- 0.38 to 1.88 +/- 0.57 cm^3 oxygen/hour.

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

  • Hollister, N. 1912. New mammals from the highlands of Siberia. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 60/14: 1-6.
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Type Information

Type for Phodopus campbelli
Catalog Number: USNM 175480
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Male; Adult
Preparation: Skin; Skull
Collector(s): N. Hollister
Year Collected: 1912
Locality: Chuisaya Steppe, 8 mi S of Kosh-Agatch, Altayskiy, Russia, Asia
Elevation (m): 2225
  • Type: Hollister, N. 1912 Nov 29. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 60 (14): 3.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Occurs in grasslands, semi-desert and desert; more likely to be found living on soils with a firmer substrate than P. roborovskii. Burrows (4-6 vertical entrances) lead to a nest chamber as deep as 1 m (but normally shallower) and food caches of seeds. May occupy burrows of Meriones, rather than digging their own. Diet primarily seeds and plants, but known to consume insects. Nocturnal or crepuscular; do not hibernate. Breeds from April-October, producing 3-4 litters of 4-8 young following a 20-22 day gestation period. Juveniles may become reproductively active in their first year.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Phodopus campbelli, like fellow members of the subfamily Cricetinae, creates and dwells within a system of subterranean tunnels. The burrow of a Campbell’s hamster is usually composed of four to six main tunnels, with both horizontal and vertical orientation. A nest is often constructed at the end of a tunnel and comprised of dry and insulating materials including but not limited to; grasses, feathers and wool. Seeds and nuts are, more often than none, cached in extremely close proximity to the nesting area.

Additionally, several region-dependant variations in Phodopus campbelli habitat preference have been documented. In the Barga and Great Kingan Regions of Manchuria, Campbell’s hamsters are known to share tunnels and burrows with several species of pikas, Ochotona dauria and Ochotona mantchuria. Moreover, Phodopus campbelli residing on the Mongolian Plateau do not dig their own burrows, but instead share the burrows of several species of Meriones, more commonly known as jirds or gerbils.

Range depth: 1 (high) m.

Average depth: .0025-.0030 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: desert or dune ; savanna or grassland ; mountains

  • Allen, G. 1938. The Mammals of China and Mongolia. New York, New York: The American Museum of Natural History.
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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

The diet of wild Phodopus campbelli is primarily composed of a wide variety of seeds, nuts and vegetation, including Stipa capillata, Iris ruthenia and Iris flavisima. Additionally, the diet may be supplemented with small invertebrates and insects.

Captive Phodopus campbelli will welcome almost any commercially prepared hamster food, traditionally composed of an extensive assortment of corn, oats, sunflower, peanuts, dried fruits and dehydrated vegetables. The latter diet is often supplemented with alfalfa and minerals or salts.

Animal Foods: insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods; mollusks

Plant Foods: leaves; wood, bark, or stems; seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit; flowers

Foraging Behavior: stores or caches food

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore , Granivore )

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Associations

Ecosystem Roles

Phodopus campbelli disperses the seeds of numerous plant species. Their burrows are not particularly destructive to the environment. They serve as a primary food source for corsac foxes (Vulpes corsac).

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

Mutualist Species:

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Predation

Known predators of tsaker falcon this species are corsac foxes (Vulpes corsac), eagle owls (Bubo bubo), steppe eagles (Aquila nipalensis), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) and saker falcons (Falco cherrug).

Known Predators:

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Communication and Perception

Of all the senses, Phodopus campbelli relies primarily on smell. Wild Campbell’s hamsters, both male and female, utilize urine and feces to identify territory. Additionally, secretions originating from both the ventral sebaceous glands and the Harderian glands, located behind the animal’s ears, are utilized not only for territory identification, but also for communication. The oral sebaceous glands of Phodopus campbelli also serve to mark all of the contents that enter or leave the animal’s cheek pouches.

Communication Channels: chemical

Other Communication Modes: scent marks

Perception Channels: visual ; acoustic

  • Tikhonova, G., I. Tikhonov, A. Surov. 1999. Comparative analysis of sensory information in dwarf hamsters (Rodentia, Cricetidae). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 78/2: 253-259.
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Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

Minimal documentation exists regarding the lifespan of wild Phodopus campbelli. However, captive Phodopus campbelli have been extensively studied in various laboratory settings and their average lifespan ranges anywhere from 1.5 - 3 years.

Typical lifespan

Status: captivity:
2 to 2.5 years.

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Reproduction

These hamsters are promiscuous.

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

Wild Phodopus campbelli breed 3-5 times per year, whereas captive Phodopus campbelli breed year-round. The breeding of the Campbell’s hamster varies by geographic location. Breeding begins in April and May, in the Tuva and Transbaikalia regions of Mongolia, respectively, and ends in late September or early October.

Breeding interval: Wild Phodopus campbelli breed 3-5 times per year, whereas captive Phodopus campbelli breed year-round.

Breeding season: The breeding of the Campbell’s hamster varies by geographic location. Breeding begins in April and May, in the Tuva and Transbaikalia regions of Mongolia, respectively, and ends in late September or early October.

Range number of offspring: 1 to 12.

Average number of offspring: 8.2.

Range gestation period: 13.5 to 22 days.

Average gestation period: 17.5 days.

Average weaning age: 17 days.

Average time to independence: 23 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 48 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 23 days.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); viviparous ; sperm-storing ; post-partum estrous

At birth, Phodopus campbelli are completely helpless and hairless. Incisors and small claws are present, but the ears and eyes are both sealed. The young depend on parental investment, until weaned approximately 17 days after birth. Prior to a study published in 2000 (Jones, 2000), it was widely held that female hamsters were primarily responsible for care of the young. However, recent evidence suggests that male hamsters may assist in the delivery process by consuming both amniotic fluid, placenta and fetal membranes.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-hatching/birth (Protecting: Male, Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Male, Female)

  • McMillan, H. 1999. Divergent reproductive endocrinology of the estrous cycle and pregnancy in dwarf hamsters (Phodopus). Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology, 124/1: 53-67.
  • Jones, J. 2000. Paternal hamsters mechanically assist the delivery, consume amniotic fluid and placenta, remove fetal membranes, and provide parental care during the birth process. Hormones & Behavior, 37/2: 116-125.
  • Ross, P. 1995. Phodopus campbelli. Mammalian Species, 0/503: 1-7. Accessed November 01, 2004 at http://www.science.smith.edu/departments/Biology/VHAYSSEN/msi/default.html.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Phodopus campbelli

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Shar, S. & Lkhagvasuren, D.

Reviewer/s
Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority) & Tsytsulina, K. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a large population size and a wide distribution. No decline in population size has been detected, and there are no known widespread major threats.
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The natural habitat of Phodopus campbelli is an extremely dry, harsh and undeveloped environment. The Campbell’s hamster is not considered an endangered species and probably does not face extinction anytime in the near future.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Population

Population
No data are available at present, although it is believed to be relatively common.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Habitat degradation may be resulting through grazing by increasing numbers of livestock. Drying of water sources and droughts also threaten this species, although it remains unclear if these represent natural environmental changes or are driven by anthropogenic activity. These are not major threats to the species at present.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Occurs within protected areas all over the area (approximately 6% of the species’ range in Mongolia).
Further research is recommended.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

Because the natural habitat of Phodopus campbelli is large, undeveloped expanses of desert, steppe and mountain terrain, the Campbell’s hamster is not responsible for any documented significant negative economic impact.

Phodopus campbelli are inquisitive by nature, and individuals kept as pets have been known to nip humans when startled. However, the bite is primarily a reaction mechanism and nips rarely extend beyond the outermost, dermal, layer of tissue.

Negative Impacts: injures humans (bites or stings)

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Phodopus campbelli, Phodopus roborovskii (desert hamsters) and Phodopus sungorus (Dzhungarian or Siberian hamsters) were collectively introduced to the American pet industry as “dwarf hamsters” in the mid-1990s. The small size, mild temperament and inexpensive maintenance of Phodopus campbelli make it both a novel pet for first-time pet owners and a particularly ideal pet for young children. Moreover, unlike larger species of the subfamily Cricetinae, Phodopus campbelli will contentedly cohabitate with one another.

The same characteristics that make the Campbell’s hamster an attractive pet also make it an ideal animal model for scientific study. Phodopus campbelli has been utilized in numerous cytogenetic and cancer investigations.

Positive Impacts: pet trade ; research and education

  • Pogosianz, H. 1975. Djungarian hamster, a suitable tool for cancer research and cytogenetic studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 54: 659-664.
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Wikipedia

Campbell's dwarf hamster

For the Russian Winter White dwarf hamster (Phodopus sungorus), see Djungarian hamster.

Campbell's dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) is a species of hamster in the genus Phodopus. It was given its common name by Oldfield Thomas in honour of W.C. Campbell, who collected the first specimen in Mongolia on July 1, 1902. It is distinguished from the closely related Djungarian hamster as it has smaller ears and no dark fur on its crown. Campbell's dwarf hamster typically has a narrow dorsal stripe compared to the Djungarian hamster and grey fur on the stomach.

In the wild, the breeding season for Campbell's dwarf hamster varies by location. For example, the breeding season begins towards the middle of April in Tuva and towards the end of April in Mongolia. However, in captivity, there is no fixed breeding season and they can breed frequently throughout the year. Females are usually sexually mature at two months of age and the gestation period is typically 20 days. Campbell's dwarf hamster is crepuscular, along with all species of Phodopus and is active throughout the year. Campbell's dwarf hamsters are omnivores, and so feed on both plant and insect material. Campbell's dwarf hamster inhabits burrows with four to six horizontal and vertical tunnels in the steppes and semi deserts of central Asia, the Altai mountains, autonomous areas of Tuva and the Hebei province in northeastern China.

This hamster is listed as of Least Concern by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). It is native to China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia and Russian Federation.

Taxonomy and naming[edit]

The binomial name of Campbell's dwarf hamster is Phodopus campbelli. This species is the type species of Phodopus, and is named after W. C. Campbell, who first described it on July 1, 1902, in Inner Mongolia. The exact location was given as "Shaborte" (a Mongolian word for a dry lake) and so the exact co-ordinates are not clear due to being constantly changed by other scientists.[3][4][5] Thomas described the type specimen in 1905 as Cricetulus campbelli.[2][3]

Synonyms for this species are Phodopus crepidatus and Phodopus tuvinicus.[2] Common names have been applied to Campbell's dwarf hamster, including the striped hairy-footed hamster,[6] the Djungarian hamster,[7][8] the Siberian hamster,[9] and Campbell's hamster.[6] Campbell's dwarf hamster is commonly confused with the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) due to some of the common names, such as the "Siberian hamster" also being used to describe the Djungarian hamster.[10]

Subspecies[edit]

American biologist Ned Hollister described a subspecies in 1912:[4]

Physical description[edit]

Close view of a hamster

The size of Campbell's dwarf hamster varies depending on its location. For example, eight wild specimens examined from Mongolia showed an average head and body length of 80 mm (3.1 in), an average hind foot length of 13.5 mm (0.53 in), and an average tail length of 5 mm (0.20 in).[5] In captivity, they are proportionally larger, as commercial pet food and fruits provide more nutrition than food found commonly in the wild.[11] The lips and cheeks have white fur and the rest of the fur around the face can be either grey or brown. A dark and narrow dorsal stripe runs along the center of the back from the nape of the neck to about 2.5 cm (0.98 in) above the tail. The surface of the hands and feet are white to ensure the animal stays warm in colder climates in countries such as Mongolia.[3] In both the wild and captivity, Campbell's dwarf hamsters scent-mark around their territories using Harderian glands, skin glands located behind the ears. They use urine and feces for communication.[12]

Campbell's dwarf hamster is distinguished from the similar looking Djungarian hamster by its smaller ears and no dark patch on the crown of its head, in certain colourations.[3][4] The dorsal stripe of Campbell's dwarf hamster is narrower, shorter, and darker than that of the Djungarian hamster, and the fur on the stomach of Campbell's dwarf hamster is grey, but it is white on the Djungarian hamster.[5] Campbell's dwarf hamster does not turn white in the winter and has a grey tint to its fur. It has a smaller interorbital breadth, but has a larger auditory bulla.[4][5] Campbell's dwarf hamster is much less tolerant to lower temperatures than the Djungarian hamster. A laboratory experiment showed Campbell's dwarf hamster can resist temperatures as low as −31.8 °C (−25.2 °F), where the Djungarian hamster can withstand temperatures as low as −44.7 °C (−48.5 °F).[10] Campbell's dwarf hamster reacts to lower temperatures by constantly exercising and tries to find a sheltered location, unlike the Djungarian hamster, which curls up and relies on its autonomic thermoregulation.[10]

Campbell's dwarf hamster has cheek pouches, which are an extension of the mouth, extending from the mouth all the way to the rear legs.[13] Food is transferred into these pouches through the diastema. The inside of the pouch contains a large number of folds of dermal papillae. When the pouch is full, it extends and becomes part of the structure of the skin.[14] By 11 days of age, the cheek pouches are fully grown and can carry objects up to the size of a sunflower seed.[15] When the cheek pouches become full, they extend back to the shoulder blades, which restrict movement.[13]

Campbell's dwarf hamster is prone to genetic abnormalities in the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids.[16][17] They can develop tumours of the mammary glands, lungs, uterus, and ovaries. Tumours can also develop if the animal is exposed to chemical carcinogens.[18] Due to having slow locomotion and an insignificant response to bright lights and humans, as well as having a low population density, field studies allow scientists to study entire populations in the wild.[19]

Lifespan[edit]

In a laboratory experiment, the average lifespan for a male Campbell's dwarf hamster in captivity was 278 days and for a female was 356 days.[16] In a different experiment, hamsters kept in captivity born in the summer lived for an average of 2.0–2.5 years.[20] Young hamsters provided widely varied diets early in life are less likely to suffer digestive problems as they mature, but this is not always possible in the wild due to lack of food; this causes the life expectancy of captive hamsters to be greater than that of wild hamsters.[21]

Diet[edit]

As omnivores, Campbell's dwarf hamsters eat a variety of different foods. A balanced diet for a hamster consists of 16-24% protein, 60-65% carbohydrates, and 5–7% fat, with constant access to fresh water.[22] In their natural habitats, dwarf hamsters feed almost exclusively on plant materials.[23] In captivity, Campbell's dwarf hamsters can get the required nutrition from commercially available food designed specifically for hamsters, which typically contain a mix of dry grains, nuts, and seeds that may be fortified with vitamins and minerals. An excess of any one particular seed or nut can lead to digestive problems, obesity, and forms nutritional deficiency.[21]

In addition to a commercially prepared seed mix, a balanced diet for a Campbell's dwarf hamster in captivity includes a regulated variety of fresh vegetables and fruits. Dark greens such as kale are rich in vitamins and minerals. Wild vegetables such as yarrow, chickweed, and dandelion and raspberry leaves, are also good sources of protein that helps prevent obesity.[21]

A hamster in captivity can occasionally eat mealworms or earthworms, which have high protein contents. Boiled egg whites and small pieces of clean, cooked chicken are also sources of extra protein.[24] They can also eat wheat grain, sunflower seeds, and locusts.[25] The teeth of Campbell's dwarf hamster, never stop growing. Like all rodents, they must therefore gnaw regularly to keep their incisors from growing into the skin of the mouth and causing pain and irritation. Smooth, young wood from nontoxic trees, such as apple and willow, is readily used by most species in the genus.[23] Most pet stores sell nontoxic wooden chews designed for rodents in captivity.[21]

Certain food items commonly consumed by humans are toxic to hamsters and should be avoided completely in captivity. After they are completely weaned at around 21 days of age, Campbell's dwarf hamsters are lactose intolerant and cannot digest milk.[citation needed] Onions and garlic are very dangerous and can cause severe haemolytic anemia.[26][unreliable source?] Leafy green vegetables such as cabbage and celery contain a large amount of water, so can have severe laxative effects on small animals.[citation needed] Grapes and raisins may contribute to acute renal failure, due to their high level of acidity.[27] Chocolate and other sticky foods such peanut butter may solidify in a hamster's cheek pouches and lead to infections, which can lead to death.[21]

In the wild, the diets of Campbell's dwarf hamsters vary across the population range. A total of 51 different species of plants were identified to be consumed by the Transbaikalia population, the most common being Stipa capillata and species of Allium. However, in Tuva, only 10 species of plant were identified to be consumed by the population, the most common being Potentilla.[24] Campbell's dwarf hamster is a natural predator of burrowing worms and grubs.[21]

Breeding[edit]

In Tuva, the breeding season of Campbell's dwarf hamster begins in April, and in Mongolia, it begins in at the end of April or the beginning of May.[28][29] However, in all distribution ranges, it ends in late September or early October.[30] In captivity, Campbell's dwarf hamsters breed throughout the year, with no fixed breeding season, but a large number are born in the summer months. In the wild, three to four litters are produced each year, with an average of eight offspring per litter.[24][25][30] In captivity, females can have between one and 18 litters per year, with one to nine offspring per litter.[18] In captivity, the gestation period for Campbell's dwarf hamster is between 18 and 20 days, and the shortest gestation period recorded for a captive female was 13 days.[24][30] The male hamster is likely to assist the female during birth. The male may pull the offspring from the birth canal, clean them, or collect food for the mother and offspring.[31]

When the offspring are born, they are hairless and have a body mass of approximately 1.5 g (0.053 oz). Incisors and claws are already formed, but the digits, eyes, and pinnae are closed and cannot be used. The rate at which the young develop differs depending on the distribution range. However, the differences are usually no longer than a day. In Tuva, the pinnae open on the first day of birth and are completely open after three days of development. However, in Mongolia, the same process occurs between two and four days of development. Fur first grows on the crown, back, and abdomen. The young are usually have a full coat of fur after seven days of development.[30] Offspring born in captivity have a shorter development time than those born in the wild. Specifically, the growth and development of the head and body, tail, hind feet, and pinnae can be up to a day sooner than those found in the wild. After 28 days of development in captivity, the young are already around half the mass of their parents.[15]

In captivity, females become sexually mature at two months of age. The ovarian follicle forms about 16 days prior to the birth of the offspring. After mating, female hamsters typically have larger uteri, ovaries, and adrenal glands compared to females which live alone, with other females or those that have not mated. The females and males may fight each other when getting to know their partner.[8] Also, these females have a shorter gestation period, around four to five days.[7]

Hybrids[edit]

In captivity, only Campbell's dwarf hamsters and Djungarian hamsters are able to interbreed and produce live offspring or hybrids. Although hybrids make suitable pets, the breeding of hybrids and cloning can cause health problems, due to inherited diseases. Because genetic information can be very similar, genetic health problems or vulnerabilities can easily be inherited by the offspring. The widespread breeding and distribution of hybrids could threaten the existence of both pure species and subspecies of the ecosystem. This could ultimately lead to the extinction of the subspecies. Each litter becomes smaller as more generations are produced and the young commonly begin to inherit many congenital problems.[23][32]

Habitat[edit]

A Daurian pika, an animal with which Campbell's dwarf hamsters may share its burrows

Campbell's dwarf hamsters inhabit burrows in the steppes and semideserts of central Asia, the Altai mountains, autonomous areas of Tuva, and the Hebei province in northeastern China.[13] A burrow can contain four to six horizontal and vertical tunnels. The tunnels leading to the nesting area can be as deep as 1 m (3 ft 3 in) below the ground, but are usually 20–30 cm (7.9–11.8 in) deep.[24][33] The burrows are lined with either dry grass or sheep's wool.[24][34] They may sometimes share burrows with Daurian pikas, but only in the steppes and semideserts of northern Manchuria.[35] In parts of Mongolia, the hamsters may also share burrows with species of Meriones to save them from digging their own.[5][36] In Tuva, Campbell's dwarf hamsters have been found living with other hamsters, such as the Chinese striped hamster, the Roborovski hamster, and the long-tailed dwarf hamster. The diets of the three types of hamsters are different to avoid fighting over the same type of food, which is why they live together.[28]

Campbell's dwarf hamsters may also live near areas of human civilization. In Mongolia, they may be found in yurts to keep warm during the winter, as they do not have thermoregulation like the Djungarian hamster.[24] They have five main predators: the Eurasian eagle owl, the steppe eagle, the corsac fox, the common kestrel, and the saker falcon.[37][38][39][40] All distribution areas have more females than males, because males are at higher risk from predators, as they cannot move as quickly.[30]

Status and conservation[edit]

This hamster is listed as of Least Concern by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The population and distribution size are large, and no major or widespread threats to the species are known. However, the increasing number of livestock in the areas of distribution, such as the steppes of central Asia, some burrows are at a small risk of being destroyed. In arid areas of distribution, the reduction in the amount of water sources is also a minor concern. These hamsters are conserved in protected areas.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Shar, S. & Lkhagvasuren, D. (2008). "Phodopus campbelli". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 14 July 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M., eds. (2005). Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 1045. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  3. ^ a b c d Oldfield, Thomas (1905). "A new Cricetulus from Mongolia". Journal of Natural History 15 (87): 322–323. doi:10.1080/03745480509443049. 
  4. ^ a b c d Hollister, Ned (1912). New mammals from the highlands of Siberia 60 (14). Smithsonian Institution. pp. 1–6. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Allen, Glover M. (1938). The mammals of China and Mongolia. New York: American Museum of Natural History. pp. 1, 729. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.12195. OCLC 766997. 
  6. ^ a b Sokolov, V.E; N.Y Vasil'Eva, A.V Surov (1988). "Age and sex characteristics of the functional activity of the sternal gland in the striped hairy-footed hamster". Doklady Akademii: 438–440. 
  7. ^ a b Wynne-Edwards, K. E.; Terranova, P. F.; Lisk, R. D. (1987). "Cyclic Djungarian Hamsters, Phodopus campbelli, Lack the Progesterone Surge Normally Associated with Ovulation and Behavioral Receptivity". Endocrinology 120 (4): 1308–16. doi:10.1210/endo-120-4-1308. PMID 3830052. 
  8. ^ a b Gudermuth, D; Butler, WR; Johnston, RE (1992). "Social influences on reproductive development and fertility in female Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus campbelli)". Hormones and Behavior 26 (3): 308–29. doi:10.1016/0018-506X(92)90002-D. PMID 1398551. 
  9. ^ Nagy, F (1990). "On the ultrastructure of the male reproductive tract in the Siberian hamster". Journal of Submicroscopic Cytology and Pathology (Department of Anatomy, Wright State University School of Medicine, Dayton, Ohio) 22 (4): 615–625. PMID 2282646. 
  10. ^ a b c Weiner, January; Heldmaier, Gerhard (1987). "Metabolism and thermoregulation in two races of djungarian hamsters: Phodopus sungorus sungorus and P. S. Campbelli". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology 86 (4): 639–42. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(87)90615-3. PMID 2882893. 
  11. ^ Vanderlip, Sharon (2009). Dwarf Hamsters. Barrons. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-0-7641-4096-9. 
  12. ^ Doty, R. L.; D. Mütze-Schwartze (1992). Chemical signals in vertebrates. New York: Plenum press. p. 637. 
  13. ^ a b c Vorontsov, N. N.; Radzhabl S. I.; Liapunova K. L. (1967). "Karyologic differentiation of allopatric forms of the hamster super-species Phodpus sungorus and the heteromorphism of sex chromosomesin females". Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR (in Russian) 172 (3): 703–735. PMID 5590132. 
  14. ^ Ryan, James (1986). "Comparative morphology and evolution of cheek pouches in rodents". Journal of Morphology 190 (1): 27–42. doi:10.1002/jmor.1051900104. 
  15. ^ a b Ross, Patricia D.; Cameron, Duncan M. (1989). "A comparison of the physical development and ontogeny of behavior in the Djungarian hamster and the Desert hamster". Acta Theriologica 34: 253–68. 
  16. ^ a b Herberg, L.; K. D. Buchanan; L. M. Herbertz; H. F. Kern; H. K. Kley (1980). "The Djungarian hamster, a laboratory animal with inappropriate hyperglycaemia". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology 65 (1): 35–60. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(80)90383-7. 
  17. ^ Voss, Karinm.; Herberg, Lieselotte; Kern, Horstf. (1978). "Fine structural studies of the islets of Langerhans in the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus)". Cell and Tissue Research 191 (2): 333–42. doi:10.1007/BF00222428. PMID 354796. 
  18. ^ a b Pogosianz, HE (1975). "Djungarian hamster-a suitable tool for cancer research and cytogenetic studies". Journal of the National Cancer Institute 54 (3): 659–64. PMID 1123853. 
  19. ^ Wynne-Edwards, K.E (1992). "Field study of chemical signalling: direct observations of dwarf hamsters in soviet asia". Chemical signals in vertebrates VI: 485–491. 
  20. ^ Hamann, U. (1987). "Zu Aktivität und Verhalten von drei Taxa der Zwerghamster der Gattung Phodopus Miller". Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde (in German): 65–76. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f "Systems and Diseases". Diseases of Small Domestic Rodents. 2003. pp. 127–31. doi:10.1002/9780470690840.ch14. ISBN 978-0-470-69084-0. 
  22. ^ Gad, Shayne C., ed. (2007). Animal Models in Toxicology (2 ed.). CRC Press. p. 248. 
  23. ^ a b c Grzimek, Bernhard, ed. (1972). Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia: Vol. 13. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. p. 306. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g Flint, Vladimir (1966). Die Zwerghamster der paläarktischen Fauna (in German). Ziemsen. p. 97. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  25. ^ a b Jordan, J. (1971). "The establishment of a colony of Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) in the United Kingdom". Journal of the Institute of Animal Technicians 22 (2): 56–60. Retrieved 3 August 2012. 
  26. ^ "Toxic Food for Hamsters; Onions". Hammy's World Syrian Hamster Breeders. Retrieved 5 February 2012. 
  27. ^ "Toxic Food for Hamsters; Grapes & Raisins". Hammy's World Syrian Hamster Breeders. Retrieved 5 February 2012. 
  28. ^ a b Flint, W. J.; N. Golovkin (1961). "A comparative study of hamster ecology in the Tuva area". Byulletin Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytaelei Priody Otdel Biologichskii (in Russian): 57–76. 
  29. ^ Nekepilov, N. W. (1960). "The Transbaikal dwarf hamsters and some ecological peculiarities of the dwarf hamster subfamily". Isvestiya Irkutskogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo (Antiplague Institute of Siberia and the Far East). 
  30. ^ a b c d e Meyer, M. N. (1967). "Peculiarities of the reproduction and development of Phodopus sungorus of different geographical populations". Zoologicheskii Zhurnal (in Russian) 46: 604–614. 
  31. ^ "Campbell's Russian Dwarf Hamsters: Breeding". CampbellsDwarfHamsters.com. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  32. ^ About Pets. The Dwarf Hamster: A Guide to Selection, Housing, Care, Nutrition, Behaviour, Health, Breeding, Species and Colours. Kingdom Books. pp. 67–71. ISBN 978-1-85279-210-7. 
  33. ^ Veselovesky, Z.; S. Grundova (1964). Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Dschungar-Hamsters (in German). pp. 305–311. 
  34. ^ Yudin, B. S.; L. I. Galkina; A. F. Potapkina (1979). Mammals of the Altai-Sayanskoi Gorni district (in Russian). Nauka. p. 296. 
  35. ^ Loukashkin, A. S. (1940). "On the Pikas of North Manchuria". Journal of Mammalogy 21 (4): 402–404. doi:10.2307/1374875. JSTOR 1374875. 
  36. ^ Thomas, Oldfield (1908). "The Duke of Bedford's Zoological Exploration in Eastern Asia.—IX. List of Mammals from the Mongolian Plateau". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 78 (1): 104–110. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1908.tb01837.x. 
  37. ^ Borsa, Carmen. "Vulpes corsac". University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 5 May 2012. 
  38. ^ Brom, I. P. (1952). "The diet of desert foxes in Transbaikalia". Isvestja Irkutskogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo (in Russian) (Antiplague Institute of Siberia and the Far East). 
  39. ^ Lipajev, W. M.; P. P. Tarrasov (1952). "Information on the diets of birds of prey in southwestern Transbaikal". Isvestija Irkutskogo Nauchno Issedovatel'skogo (Antipest Institute for Siberian & Ferned Osten) 10. 
  40. ^ Peshkov, M. G. (1957). "The diets of the Djungarian and Daurien dwarf hamsters". Ivestija Irkutskogo Issledovalel'skogo (in Russian) (Antirest Institute) 23. 
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