Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Chinese (Simplified) (4) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Like the greater white-toothed shrew, this species alternates bouts of activity with rest (2) throughout both the day and night (3), but activity peaks at dusk and dawn (3). It is typically a solitary species, but is not as aggressive as Sorex species (3). White-toothed shrews are also known as 'musk shrews' because they have a strong musky aroma. They are known to 'belly-mark' their home ranges by dragging their belly along the ground in order to scent-mark it (4). As home ranges overlap, it is likely that it is not very territorial (3). It feeds on a variety of invertebrates (2) including small crustaceans that live amongst rocks on the seashore (4). They nest under logs and stones or in burrows (2). The breeding season extends from March to September, and females become receptive and conceive whilst they are still suckling the previous litter (3). This species has a greater reproductive output than any of the British red-toothed shrews, producing 4-5 litters a year, each comprising of 1-6 young (5). The young exhibit 'caravanning' behaviour (2); if the nest is disturbed, the female leads the young to a new nest site; the young follow her in a line, each one grasping the tail of the shrew in front by the tail (4). The average life span of this shrew is up to 18 months (3).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

This shrew is the smallest of the 'white-toothed shrews' (2); it lacks the deposition of iron in the tips of the teeth seen in red-toothed shrews (4). The upper surface of the body is greyish or reddish brown in colour; and the underside is paler (3). The tail is covered in short bristly hairs (3), and long whisker-like (2) white hairs (3). Although smaller and lighter, this species is very similar in appearance to the greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) (2), so much so that the only truly reliable method to distinguish between the two species is by examination of the teeth, and the relative sizes of the tail and hind feet (measurements above) (3).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Description

The lesser white-toothed shrew is a medium-sized shrew. The upperparts of the body and side grayish or reddish brown in color. Tail relatively long. Tail color varies from grayish to brownish above, paler below with bristles dispersed along the entire length. Distinctive line dividing the upperparts from the underparts. Underparts and feet whitish. Snout broad. Ears small but distinguished. Eyes small.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

The Lesser White-toothed Shrew has a wide global distribution. It occurs in the Palaearctic, extending from the Atlantic coast of Spain and probably Portugal (where its occurrence needs further confirmation) extending eastwards through Europe and Asia to Siberia. The southernmost edge of its distribution reaches Sinai (Egypt), Asia Minor, Israel, Saudia Arabia, Iran and China.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution in Egypt

Narrow (Sinai and Mediterranean coast).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

This shrew has a wide distribution in Europe, extends eastwards to Japan and also occurs in North Africa (3). It does not occur on mainland Britain, but is present on Jersey and Sark in the Channel Islands and is also found on the Scilly Isles (3), where it is thought to be represented by a subspecies known as the Scilly shrew (C. s. cassiteridum, endemic to the Scilly Isles (6). It is believed to have originally been introduced to the Scilly Isles (4) and has since evolved into a new subspecies.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Size

Length: 55–63 mm. Tail length: 25–37 mm.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Type for Crocidura suaveolens
Catalog Number: USNM 105801
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Female; Adult
Preparation: Skin; Skull
Collector(s): E. Zollikofer
Year Collected: 1900
Locality: Zuberwangen, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland, Europe
  • Type: Miller, G. S. 1901 Jun 27. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 14: 95.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
At higher latitudes and altitudes in Europe it is often associated with human habitation, tending to be found in parks, gardens, and even houses. It is very common in straw ricks. In western and southern Europe and it inhabits a wide range of habitats including vineyards, olive groves, terraced farmland on hillsides, dry Mediterranean shrubland, sand dunes, rocky areas in the mountains, and damp densely-vegetated patches near to water. It tends to avoid dense forests (Vlasák and Niethammer 1990, Libois et al. 1999). Small, soft-bodied insects form a major part of its diet (Vlasák and Niethammer 1990).

In southwest Asia it has been collected from habitats with long dry grasses; thick vegetation along streams, river edges and vegetation channels; around houses and in forested areas (Bates and Harrison 1989, Tez 2000). Its main requirement is enough vegetation and moisture to support its insect prey, and in arid areas it tends to be more common near springs and oases; however, it is more tolerant of dry conditions than many of its congeners (Qumsiyeh 1996).

The gestation period is 28 days and life expectancy one year; a female may have 10-12 litters, each with one to seven young, although usually four (Qumsiyeh 1996).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

The lesser white-toothed shrew found in a variety of habitats, among shrubs in coastal sand dunes or dense plants in rocky deserts, humid or arid conditions.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Occurs in a variety of habitats (2), favouring dry ground, and has even adapted to living on the seashore and grassy sand dunes in the Scilly Isles (4). Like the greater white-toothed shrew, it often occurs close to man, living around outbuildings (3).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Behaviour

Diurnal animal with maximum activity from 5 to 8 pm, otherwise hiding between shrubs or under rocks. Feeds on snails, earthworm and arthropods, especially insects. Lesser white-toothed shrew secretes pheromones to communicate with other individuals. It is typically a solitary species. Lesser white-toothed shrew breeds from one to seven times throughout the year, but mainly from March to May. Female gives birth to five litters each containing from one to six young after a gestation period of around 28 days. The young open their eyes at 10 days and reaches sexual maturity after 3 months. Lesser white-toothed shrew can live for 2.5 years.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 2.7 years (captivity) Observations: One anecdotal report, which may be true, claimed that one wild-caught female lived 2.3 years in captivity and may have been over 3 years old at the time of death (http://members.chello.at/natura/shrew/index.html). It is also possible, though unverified, that these animals live up to 4 years (Ernest 2003), just like similar species. Females may mate as young as 2 months of age. Males typically mate in their second year of life.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Joao Pedro de Magalhaes

Source: AnAge

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Crocidura suaveolens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 15
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Hutterer, R., Amori, G., Kryštufek, B., Yigit, N., Mitsain, G. & Palomo, L.J.

Reviewer/s
Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority) & Temple, H. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
A widespread and common species throughout its range with no major threats hence is listed as Least Concern.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status in Egypt

Native, resident.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Protected under Schedule 6 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981 (6).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
It is uncommon in the western part of its range, occurring at much lower densities than its congener C. russula (Libois et al. 1999). Further east it is more common. Described as abundant and ubiquitous in at least parts of its global range (Harrison and Bates 1991). In the steppe forest zone in Ukraine it is the most abundant shrew species, both in natural and agricultural habitats (I. Zagorodnyuk pers. comm. 2006).

Population Trend
Stable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
It may be out-competed in some areas by C. russula. Pesticides and herbicides may have a negative impact on the species in agricultural habitats (Libois et al. 1999), but at present this does not seem to be a major threat.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

This species is not threatened at present, although like most shrews it is vulnerable to pesticide use, habitat loss and declines in prey availability (5).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It is listed on Appendix III of the Bern Convention. Subspecies C. s. caneae, endemic to Crete, is on Appendix II of the Bern Convention (as C. ariadne). It occurs in protected areas within its range. No specific conservation actions are recommended.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

All shrews are protected under the Wildlife and Countryside Act (6).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Lesser white-toothed shrew

The Lesser White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura suaveolens) is a tiny shrew with a widespread distribution in Africa, Asia and Europe.[3][4] Its preferred habitat is scrub and gardens and it feeds on insects, worms, slugs, snails, newts and small rodents. The closely related Asian Lesser White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura shantungensis) was once included in this species, but is now considered to be a separate species.

Like the common shrew, a female lesser white-toothed shrew and her young may form a "caravan" when foraging for food or seeking a place of safety; each shrew grips the tail of the shrew in front so that the group stays together.[3]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Occurs widely from France and Spain, in the west, across Europe and Asia to Japan and also in North Africa.[3] There is one isolated United Kingdom population in the Isles of Scilly and another two populations off the French coast in the Channel Islands of Jersey and Sark.[5] The preferred habitat is dry ground, including scrub and gardens, and within the Isles of Scilly can be found on shingle beaches and sand dunes.[3]

The Scilly Shrew[edit]

The population found on the Isles of Scilly, off the southwest coast of England, was once thought to be a sub-species, Crocidura suaveolens cassiteridum,[3] and is known as the Scilly Shrew. Skull and tooth measurements of individuals from Scilly are found to be intermediate in size of those in the Channel Islands and the darker fur of the Scilly specimens is not considered a valid reason for the naming of a sub-species.[4] It is unusual in that it can be found on the islands' beaches.[6] The Scillonian name for the animal is "teak" or "teke".[7]

Archaeological remains indicate that it was present on the islands in the bronze age, so it may have been present before the Isles of Scilly became separated from the European continent, or may have migrated from the Channel Islands or Europe onboard ships.[8] Although if shrews had survived through the last galciation or the Younger Dryas, it would seem that northerly distributed species such as Sorex araneus would have been more likely to survive, rather than a southerly distibuted species such as Crocidura suaveolens.[5]

In July 1924 W N Blair found an unknown species of shrew on Gugh and sent it to the mammal expert, Mr Hinton, at the British Museum. This specimen, held at the museum, is the type for the species.[9] Ten years earlier H N Robinson found an unknown rodent at Old Town St Mary's and sent it to Mr F W Smalley "who had the largest collection of rodents in the country". In 2010, a Scilly shrew made headlines on BBC Cornwall when it stowed away on the passenger ferry RMV Scillonian III. It was only discovered as the ship was about to arrive in Penzance. The shrew was flown back to the Isles of Scilly the next day on a Skybus plane and then released back into its natural environment.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hutterer, R. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 250. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  2. ^ Insectivore Specialist Group (1996). Crocidura suaveolens. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-05-12. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern
  3. ^ a b c d e "Lesser white-toothed shrew". ARKive. Retrieved 21 December 2010. 
  4. ^ a b Harris, S; Yalden, D. W. "Mammals of the British Isles". The Mammal Society. 
  5. ^ a b Yalden, Derek (1999). The History of British Mammals. London: T & A D Poyser Ltd. ISBN 0-85661-110-7. 
  6. ^ Lord D (2009). In CISFBR, ed. Red Data Book for Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly (2nd ed.). Praze-an-Beeble: Croceago Press. pp. 402–417. ISBN 978-1-901685-01-5. 
  7. ^ Robinson, H.W. (1925) A New British Animal Discovered in Scilly. Scillonian 4: 123-4
  8. ^ "Scilly shrew". Isles of Scilly Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 21 December 2010. 
  9. ^ Blair, W.N. (1926) Blair's White-toothed Shrew. Scillonian 5:164-5.
  10. ^ Cornish ferry stowaway shrew flown home, 17 June 2010 (accessed 2011-08-16)
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Gueldenstaedt's Shrew

The Gueldenstaedt's shrew (Crocidura gueldenstaedtii) is a species of mammal in the Soricidae family. It is found in Armenia, Azerbaijan, China, Georgia (country), Greece, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Taiwan, Turkey, and Uzbekistan.

References

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!