Overview

Brief Summary

Coccothraustes vespertinus

One of North America’s larger finches, the Evening Grosbeak is most easily identified by its large size (8 inches), massive bill, and large white wing patches. Male Evening Grosbeaks are bright yellow on the lower body becoming duller yellow-brown towards the head, with striking yellow foreheads and eye-stripes. The female is similar but duller, having less yellow on the head and body. The Evening Grosbeak breeds across southern Canada and the northern tier of the United States. Smaller populations occur further south at higher elevations in the western U.S.and northern and central Mexico. Many Evening Grosbeaks spend the winter on their breeding grounds, but occasionally large numbers will migrate as far south as Texas and South Carolina in response to changes in food supply. Evening Grosbeaks inhabit cool forests containing both evergreen and deciduous trees. Birds that move south for the winter are normally found in similar habitats, but have also been recorded in more built-up areas where ornamental box elder trees are planted. Evening Grosbeaks eat fruits, berries, seeds, and insects when available. In their native habitat, Evening Grosbeaks may be most easily seen foraging for food in the tree canopy or on the ground. When this species occurs in built-up areas, individuals may also be seen visiting bird feeders. This species is most active during the day.

Threat Status: Least concern

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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDS: British Columbia, northern Alberta, central Saskatchewan, across southern Canada to Nova Scotia, south in mountains to central California and Veracruz, Mexico; in East to Minnesota, northern New York, Massachusetts. WINTERS: throughout breeding range; irregularly to Gulf Coast and central Florida.

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 20 cm

Weight: 60 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: Coniferous (primarily spruce and fir) and mixed coniferous- decidouous woodland, second growth, and occasionally parks; in migration and winter in a variety of forest and woodland habitats, and around human habitation (AOU 1983).

Nests usually nests in dense foliage of deciduous tree or conifer, 2-21 m above ground (Terres 1980). See Bekoff et al. (1987) for nest-site characteristics in Colorado.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Irruptive migrant. Flocks move irregularly eastward and southward, beyond regular range, in years when population is high or seed food crop is low (Terres 1980). In eastern North America, males generally winter farther north than do females (Prescott 1991).

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Most of its diet consists buds and seeds of deciduous trees and shrubs and conifers. During the summer also eats some insects.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

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Global Abundance

10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

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General Ecology

Gregarious. Travels and forages in flocks througout much of the year.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 17 years
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Reproduction

In Colorado, most nest are initiated in late May or early June (Scott and Bekoff 1991). Clutch size 2-5 (usually 3-4). Incubation about 12-14 days, by female (male provides most of female's food during incubation). Young tended by both adults, leave nest at 13-14 days (Terres 1980, Bekoff et al. 1987, Scott and Bekoff 1991). Typically monogamous in Colorado (Scott and Bekoff 1991).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Coccothraustes vespertinus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNGGGTACCGCCCTAAGTCTCCTCATCNGAGCNGAACTGGGNCAACCAGGAGCCCTCCTGGGAGACGACCAAGTCTACAACGTAATCGTCACAGCCCATGCATTCGTAATAATCTTCTTCATAGTTATACCCATCATAATTGGAGGATTCGGAAACTGACTAGTCCCCCTAATGATTGGAGCCCCAGATATAGCATTTCCACGAATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCCCCATCCTTCCTCCTCCTGCTAGCATCTTCCACAGTAGAAGCAGGAGTTGGTACAGGTTGAACGGTATACCCCCCACTAGCTGGCAACCTAGCTCACGCCGGAGCCTCAGTTGACCTCGCAATCTTCTCCTTACACCTAGCCGGNATTTCCTCAATCCTAGGAGCAATCAACTTTATCACAACAGCAATCAACATAAAACCTCCCGCCCTATCACAATACCAAACCCCCCTATTCGTATGATCCGTCCTAATTACTGCTGTATTACTACTCTTATCTCTGCCAGTTCTAGCTGCAGGAATTACAATACTACTAACAGACCGTAACCTCAACACCACATTCTTTGACCCTGCAGGCGGAGGAGACCCTGTCCTATACCAACACCTCTTCTGATTCTTCGGACACCCAGAAGTATACATCCTAATCCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Coccothraustes vespertinus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Large range, fairly common, stable populations.

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Population

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Comments: Breeding Bird Survey data indicate relatively stable populations in North America during the years 1966-1989 (Droege and Sauer 1990).

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Wikipedia

Evening Grosbeak

The Evening Grosbeak (Coccothraustes vespertinus) is a large finch. In the past, it was treated in a genus of its own as Hesperiphona vespertina, but is now usually placed in the same genus as the Hawfinch of Eurasia.

The breeding habitat is coniferous and mixed forest across Canada and the western mountainous areas of the United States and Mexico. It is an extremely rare vagrant to the British Isles, with just two records so far. The nest is built on a horizontal branch or in a fork of a tree.

The migration of this bird is variable; in some winters, it may wander as far south as the southern U.S.

The Evening Grosbeak is similar in appearance to the Hawfinch, both being bulky, heavily built finches with large bills and short tails. The Evening Grosbeak ranges in length from 16 to 22 cm (6.3 to 8.7 in) in length and spans 30 to 36 cm (12 to 14 in) across the wings.[2][3] In a large sampling of grosbeaks in Pennsylvania during winter, males weighed from 38.7 to 86.1 g (1.37 to 3.04 oz), with an average of 60 g (2.1 oz), while females weighed from 43.2 to 73.5 g (1.52 to 2.59 oz), with an average of 58.7 g (2.07 oz).[4] Among standard measurements, the wing chord is 10.45 to 11.6 cm (4.11 to 4.6 in), the tail is 6 to 6.95 cm (2.4 to 2.74 in), the bill is 1.6 to 2 cm (0.63 to 0.79 in) and the tarsus is 1.95 to 2.2 cm (0.77 to 0.87 in).[5] The adult has a short black tail, black wings and a large pale bill. The adult male has a bright yellow forehead and body; its head is brown and there is a large white patch in the wing. The adult female is mainly olive-brown, greyer on the underparts and with white patches in the wings.

These birds forage in trees and bushes, sometimes on the ground. They mainly eat seeds, berries, and insects. Outside of the nesting season they often feed in flocks. Sometimes, they will swallow fine gravel.

The range of this bird has expanded far to the east in historical times, possibly due to plantings of Manitoba maples and other maples and shrubs around farms and the availability of bird feeders in winter.

Gallery[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Coccothraustes vespertinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses by John B. Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (1992), ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.
  5. ^ Finches and Sparrows by Peter Clement. Princeton University Press (1999). ISBN 978-0691048789.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Often placed in the genus Hesperiphona (AOU 1998). See Prescott (1994) for information on geographical variation in body size.

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