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Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

After reaching sexual maturity at eight to nine years, the Laysan albatross switches from permanently living at sea and returns to land for nearly 10 months of the year to raise a single chick. First-time breeders engage in an elaborate courtship display which establishes pair bonds lasting for the rest of their 40 year lives. The male and female build a shallow nest in a colony based on open ground surrounded by tall vegetation. The female lays a single egg which both sexes take turns incubating for nine weeks. The chick is fed by both parents, who alternately tend to the chick and embark on trips of several days to forage at sea. Upon their return, the stomach oil and partially digested stomach contents are regurgitated to feed the chick (4). At the end of the breeding season in July, most birds head northwest towards Japan, and then northeast towards the Aleutian Islands off the coast of Alaska. They then migrate south to Hawaii for the next breeding season (4). Whilst normally quiet and solitary at sea, large flocks may gather to exploit fish discards from factory trawlers. The Laysan albatross seizes food at the surface and by shallow diving to catch squid, fish and crustaceans (2).
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Description

Named after one of the islands on which it breeds, the Laysan albatross is a large bird with extremely long wings. Males are slightly larger, but both sexes have a white head, body and undertail feathers, with dark upperwings and back, and black and white patterning on the underwings. The bill and feet are pinkish (3). A dark patch surrounds the eye (2).
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Mating dances

Male and female individuals perform complex displays before mating. The male begins when it sees a female approach, trying to attract the female by dancing on the spot. If the female is interested it will approach the male with its head slightly lowered. The female then taps the side of the male’s bill and may nibble on the breast feathers. The two birds then enter a dance routine consisting of a series of discrete movements. These movements can be combinations of sounds and body motions or even staring at each other or throwing bits of dirt. A bird will go though there whole dance routine even if their partner stops. Sometimes, the birds will gradually synchronize their dance routines. (Meseth 242) If they conclude the dance and mate or begin preening each other the pair bond is thought to have formed. Juveniles and very occasionally chicks will do limited dance routines (Meseth 246)

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Midway Atoll

The famous Midway atoll has a large colony of nesting Laysan albatross and also a large number of abandoned structures. Lead paint is chipping off the abandoned World War Two era buildings. Fledglings often ingest the chips, which leads to lead poisoning and a condition called “droop-wing syndrome”. Because of nerve damage from lead poisoning, the fledgling cannot hold its wings against its body. Instead, they droop and scrape against the ground. The fledgling cannot fly and will eventually starve. Fledgling mortality is abnormally high on the islands and droop-wing seems to be more prevalent near abandoned buildings with peeling paint. (Sileo 433)

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Human disturbance

A nesting colony exists on Clarion Island which hosts a military base. The nesting birds are routinely predated by invasive mammals which are being continually introduced. Military personnel and general activity on the base also disturbs the birds. As of 1988, the date of the last count, this population was down to 30 nesting pairs. The largest population in the east pacific is on Guadalupe Island which also hosts a military base. This colony may also be threatened. (Pitman 160)

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Eggs

A single egg is laid per season. The egg is ovate or elliptical. It is colored white and sometimes has reddish blood spots from ruptured capillaries in the parent. It is typically 108 mm in length and 67.1 mm in diameter, about the median for albatross species. It typically weighs 278 grams. The male may or may not be present during egg laying. If it is, it tends to make a soft "moo" sound when the egg is deposited. (Fisher 109)

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Reproduction

The species is monogamous and breeding pairs tend to stay together for years. Females start developing the eggs before they reach shore and find their partner. First time breeders lay eggs with much less frequency and later in the season than returning breeders. However, young females paired with older males tend to match the laying cycles of older females. (Fisher 106) The environment affects breeding patterns heavily. When severely disturbed, up to 72% of the population may fail to breed or choose not to. (Stahl 328)

The mother often lays the egg directly on the ground before even beginning a nest. (Fisher 108) The nest once built consists of a dirt mound with a deep depression in the center. Once a mother has established a nest location it returns to it year after year, and usually only moves locations of it finds a new mate.

During brooding, the albatross makes short foraging trips to sites close to the shore. In Hawaii these sites tend to be warmer and deeper than its usual foraging grounds and are much less productive. Once the chick has hatched and can be left unattended the parent travels much farther distances to more productive sites. (Awkerman 290)

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Nesting sites

99.9% of Laysan albatrosses nest in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The rest live on other Pacific islands and in Mexico. Laysan populations seem to be spreading, with entirely new nesting colonies forming in some places. New colonies have sprung up on islets off Guadalupe Island, Mexico. This is probably due to the fact that invasive mammals that predate the colonies have not reached these islets. (Pitman 160)

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Diet

The diet of the Laysan Albatross is believed to consist primarily of squid. A study of Albatross pellets from Guadalupe Island found that 99.7% of their diet consists of cephalopods, the rest fish. This is hard to know for certain, since other prey such as fish may not show up in the pellets collected by researchers. Squid have a hard beak that resists the digestive process. (Pitman 162) Instead of catching live squid, the Laysan albatross may scavenge dead squid floating on the ocean surface. This is supported by the fact that they eat primarily squid species that live in deep water but the females die after mating. The albatrosses have also been found to mostly forage during the day when squid do not surface and land in order to sleep at night. This further supports the theory that they scavenge their food. (Pitman 164) Unlike many albatross species they do not tend to follow ships in order to scavenge food. (Meseth 218)

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Distribution

Range Description

Phoebastria immutabilis breeds at 16 sites (nine with populations of greater than 100 pairs), mostly in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (USA) and US Minor Outlying Islands, with additional small colonies in Japan and Mexico. The population is estimated to be c.590,926 breeding pairs, with the largest colony at Midway Atoll, followed by Laysan Island, both in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Naughton et al. 2007). Population sizes at monitored colonies increased between 1980 and 1995 but have never reached the densities observed prior to large-scale harvests for feathers in the early 1900s. Data indicated a 32% decline during 1992-2002 (3.2% per annum) of birds breeding on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, where 99% of the global population is found (Gilman and Freifeld 2003, US Fish and Wildlife Service data per B. Flint 2003), though data from 2004 and 2006 indicate that the breeding population then rebounded, and that the overall population trend for 1992-2005 is stable (Naughton et al. 2007). On Oahu, Hawaii the small population has increased 27% annually since 1991, and numbered 365 adults in 2008, due primarily to immigration with some local recruitment (Young et al. 2009). A population began nesting in Mexico in the 1980s and has been increasing since then. The current population is about 400 pairs at four sites (46 pairs on Clarion Island in 2002, Wanless et al. 2009), though this represents less than 0.1% of the global population (Naughton et al. 2007). Breeding populations were extirpated from Wake and Johnston atolls (USA) and Minami Torishima (Japan) in the central Pacific. Ship-based observations, satellite tracking and fisheries bycatch reveal the wide distribution of Laysan Albatross in the North Pacific, ranging from the Bering Sea to tropical waters in the South (15-20 degrees North) (Fernandez et al. 2001, Hyrenbach et al. 2002, Shaffer et al. 2004).

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Laysan albatrosses breed on the Hawaiian islands, some of Japan’s Bonin Islands, Guadalupe Island, and other islands off the coast of western Mexico. These albatrosses mainly breed in the Hawaiian archipelago; more than half of the population breeds on Midway Island. Their name comes from the breeding colony on Laysan, in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. When Laysan albatrosses are not breeding, they occur throughout the Pacific Ocean. Birds spend nearly half the year (July through November) at sea and don’t land until breeding season. Non-breeding albatrosses are found mostly near the Aleutians and the Bering Sea. Laysan albatrosses take off from breeding grounds in July and head northwest towards Japan, northeast in August, and then south again to breeding islands in November. Their range is limited by central Pacific winds because albatrosses depend on wind currents for sustained flight.

Biogeographic Regions: oceanic islands (Native ); pacific ocean (Native )

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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Transient

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

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Global Range: (20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)) Breeds on most of northwestern Hawaiian Islands, from Kure Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to Kauai in the main islands (Whittow 1993); attempts have been made to nest on Oahu, Molokai, Niihau, and Moku Manu in the main islands, but with little success owing in part to active human discouragement because of danger to aircraft; also nests on Ogasawara Islands, and at least formerly on Seven Islands of Izu, and on Marcus, Johnston, and Wake islands; recently (late 1980s and early 1990s) found nesting on Isla Guadalupe and on islas San Benedicto and Clarion of the Islas Revillagigedo, and at Alijos Rock (Whittow 1993), off western Mexico (Howell and Webb 1992, Pitman and Ballance 2002). Ranges at sea in Bering Sea, North Pacific from Alaska to coasts of Baja California, and Japan; recorded at sea between latitudes 8 degrees north and 59 degrees north, and longitudes 170 degrees east and 105 degrees west (Whittow 1993).

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Range

Breeds w Hawaiian and Revillagigedo islands; ranges n Pacific.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Range

Most Laysan albatrosses breed on the northwestern Hawaiian Archipelago and off Baja California, and spend the non-breeding season out at sea in the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea (2). Other populations are found in Canada, Japan, Mexico, and Norfolk Island in the Pacific Ocean (1).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Laysan albatrosses have blackish-brown backs and upper wings. The primary feathers have a flash of white. The under wing is also white, with black margins. There is a dark tail band that is visible during flight. Similar species are black-footed albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes). They are distinguished because black-footed albatrosses are dark all over, including the under wings. The other similar North American albatross species, short-tailed albatrosses (Phoebastria albatrus), have a yellow wash on the head and neck.

Range mass: 1.9 to 3.1 kg.

Average mass: 2.4 kg.

Range length: 79 to 81 cm.

Range wingspan: 195 to 203 cm.

Average basal metabolic rate: 0.53 cm3.O2/g/hr.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

Average basal metabolic rate: 7.462 W.

  • National Geographic Society, 2002. National Geographic Field Guide to Birds of North America, 4th Edition. Des Moines, IA: National Geographic.
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Size

Length: 81 cm

Weight: 3230 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Laysan Albatross is an annual breeder though, like other albatross species, each year a proportion of birds will skip a breeding season. Nests vary from a simple scoop in the sand to more elaborate nests where vegetation allows. A Laysan Albatross has been recorded breeding aged 55 years (USFWS unpublished data). High rates of mate change (14%), super-normal clutches, and same-sex pairing (31% of pairs), observed on Oahu, Hawaii are all previously unreported for the species (Young et al. 2008, 2009). The high rates of same-sex pairing is thought to result from a slightly skewed sex ratio (57% female) (Young et al. 2008). Diet analysis indicates that it feeds primarily on cephalopods (Pittman et al. 2006), though also on a variety of fish, crustaceans and other invertebrates (Tickell 2000). Satellite tracking has revealed the large journeys made even while breeding (Fernandez et al. 2001, Naughton et al. 2007, S. Shaffer in litt 2007). Breeding birds at Tern Island switch from a local unimodal foraging strategy during brooding, to a bimodal foraging strategy incorporating more distant, highly productive subarctic waters during the rearing period (Hyrenbach et al. 2002). Reproductive success has been linked to foraging location, with pairs fledging chicks two years in a row not foraging near continental shelves (Edwards and Parrish 2008). It is thought that this ability may be influenced by information gathered during the non-breeding season (Edwards and Parrish 2008).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 6204 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 6066 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): -0.445 - 26.778
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.004 - 21.548
  Salinity (PPS): 27.601 - 35.350
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.668 - 8.737
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.061 - 1.906
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.058 - 40.317

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): -0.445 - 26.778

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.004 - 21.548

Salinity (PPS): 27.601 - 35.350

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.668 - 8.737

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.061 - 1.906

Silicate (umol/l): 1.058 - 40.317
 
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breeding on Hawaii
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
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breeding on Hawaii
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When they land in the breeding season, Laysan albatrosses prefer to be in sandy, grassy areas on low atolls. They prefer to be next to sand dunes and shrubs such as Scaevola. The rest of the time, Laysan albatrosses are found at soaring above the sea and only land on the water to feed or sleep. Their distribution may be related to food abundance, such as squid. On land, they are not frequently found above 500 m, usually at sea level.

Range elevation: 0 to 500 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; saltwater or marine

Terrestrial Biomes: desert or dune

Aquatic Biomes: pelagic

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Comments: Nonbreeding: pelagic. Does not often follow ships. Nests on ground in sheltered areas and open grassy areas (e.g., lawns) on oceanic islands (especially Laysan and Midway). Usually returns to nest site used in previous year (Fisher 1975).

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Depth range based on 6204 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 6066 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): -0.445 - 26.778
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.004 - 21.548
  Salinity (PPS): 27.601 - 35.350
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.668 - 8.737
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.061 - 1.906
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.058 - 40.317

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): -0.445 - 26.778

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.004 - 21.548

Salinity (PPS): 27.601 - 35.350

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.668 - 8.737

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.061 - 1.906

Silicate (umol/l): 1.058 - 40.317
 
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This is an open ocean species that comes to land exclusively to breed, at which time it inhabits open sandy or grassy areas (4).
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Arrives in nesting areas late October-early November, males preceding females. Immatures may not migrate back to their hatching area for several years (typically about 4 years on Midway) (Fisher 1975).

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Trophic Strategy

Laysan albatrosses eat mainly squid but also eat fish, fish-eggs, and crustaceans. They eat small sunfish (Ranzania laevis), flying fish and their eggs (Exocoetidae), wind-sailers (Velella velella), and crustaceans such as Eurythenes gryllus. These seabirds feed mainly at night when squid are plentiful in surface waters. They are surface feeders; they feed by sitting on the water and scooping up prey from just under the surface. They can rip apart larger prey with their beaks.

Animal Foods: fish; eggs; mollusks; aquatic crustaceans

Primary Diet: carnivore (Molluscivore )

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Comments: Eats squid mostly at night when squid are at ocean surface (Palmer 1962).

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Associations

Laysan albatrosses, aside from preying on squid and fish and being preyed upon by tiger sharks and rats, are also hosts for occasional parasitic species. Ectoparasites can cause parasite dermatitis. A new species of chigger was found on a Laysan albatross nestling.

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • chiggers (Apoloniinae)

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Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) prey on fledglings as they swim near breeding islands, eating about 1 in 10 fledglings. Tiger sharks can also attack adults. Polynesian rats (Rattus exulans) have also been reported to attack incubating adults and nestlings. Adults will protect their nests using their bills. In the main Hawaiian islands, introduced predators such as dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) have killed Laysan albatrosses and, on Oahu, mongooses (Herpestidae) may be a threat.

Known Predators:

  • tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier)
  • Polynesian rats (Rattus exulans)
  • domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)
  • mongooses (Herpestidae)

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 6 - 80

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Global Abundance

>1,000,000 individuals

Comments: In 1996, 387,854 breeding pairs (71% of the world's population) nested on Midway Atoll (USFWS 2000).

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General Ecology

Long-lived; low mortality arte (annual mortality rate of breeders on Midway 5-6%); breeding life expectancy 16-18 years. (Fisher 1975).

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Laysan albatrosses have an elaborate courtship display that uses visual, tactile, and audio stimuli. During the courtship display, these albatrosses respond in unison to their potential mate, including a mutual bill-clicking display. When incubating eggs they make soft “eh-eh” sounds to the egg and to their partner. When males return to the breeding colony at the start of the season they make sky calls, in which males rise on their toes, point their bills at the sky and emit a long, single note.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Life Expectancy

Laysan albatrosses have a lifespan of 12to 51 years. Birds that start breeding early in life tend to die younger. Mortality rates are highest during the 3rd to 6th breeding years. The major cause of mortality in nestlings is dehydration. Many adult birds have been killed due to military and aircraft activities.

Range lifespan

Status: wild:
12 to 51 years.

Typical lifespan

Status: wild:
10 to 19 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 53 years (wild) Observations: One specimen banded in 1956 was recaptured on Midway Atoll in 2002. In 1956 the animal was incubating an egg making it at least 51 years old in 2002. It was brooding a healthy chick in 2002 (http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/).
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Reproduction

Laysan albatrosses are monogamous and known for their elaborate courtship displays. This courtship display is complicated and consists of 25 different postures, from clicking beaks together to tucking them under wings, to pointing them at the sky simultaneously. Only first time breeders and non-breeding birds perform this dance. Laysan albatrosses mate for life. Males and females start breeding around 8 to 9 years of age. Pair bonds are formed over several years – albatrosses may form the pair bond in their third year but not start breeding until they are 8 or 9. Laysan albatrosses do not change mates unless one dies, but changing mates decreases breeding frequency.

Mating System: monogamous

Laysan albatrosses breed once a year and lay one egg each time they breed. If the egg is lost, it is not replaced. The incubation period lasts for about 65 days, both parents take turns incubating the egg. The nestling fledges around 165 days after hatching and leaves the nest at about the same time because the parents stop feeding it. The nestling probably leaves out of hunger and must learn how to swim, fly, and feed out of necessity.  Males and females copulate about 24 hours after arriving at the breeding colony. Within a couple of hours after copulation, both birds depart for sea and return after about 8 days. Upon her return, the female builds the nest for a day or so and then lays her egg. Nest construction continues during incubation, mostly by the female but the male contributes as well. Laysan albatrosses are colonial nesters. Nests are a depression in the sand or soil with a rim made of twigs, leaves, or sand.

Breeding interval: Laysan albatrosses breed once a year.

Breeding season: Laysan albatrosses breed from November to July.

Average eggs per season: 1.

Range time to hatching: 63.8 to 65.6 days.

Average time to hatching: 64.4 days.

Average fledging age: 165 days.

Average time to independence: 165 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 8.9 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 8.4 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

Both sexes play an equal role in incubating the egg, maintaining the nest, and raising the young. The female on average incubates a few days less than the male does (29 vs. 36 days). Birds exchange incubation shifts, usually about 5 times, during the total period of incubation. Exchange occurs during the day, preceded by mutual preening. The relieved bird usually departs to find food within an hour. Both sexes develop an incubation patch that re-feathers after the egg is hatched. If the egg is displaced from the nest, the parent will not retrieve it. After the bird hatches, both parents play equal roles in feeding the chick regurgitated food, which usually consists of squid oil and flying fish eggs. The parent will only feed the chick at the nest site to ensure that it is feeding its own chick. The chick is brooded by the parent for the first few days and later guarded. Both parents take an equal role in guarding the chick.

Parental Investment: precocial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female)

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Source: Animal Diversity Web

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Egg are laid November-December. Clutch size is 1. Incubation lasts 62-68 days, by both sexes in turn (turn may last weeks). Nestling stage lasts about 165 days. Young are tended by both sexes, may be left alone for 1-4 days after 6 weeks. First breeds at 5-9 years.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Phoebastria immutabilis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNTCACTGCTCATGCCTTCGTAATAATCTTCTTTATAGTCATACCGATCATAATTGGAGGATTCGGAAACTGACTAGTACCACTTATAATCGGTGCCCCCGACATAGCATTCCCACGTATAAACAATATAAGCTTCTGACTACTACCTCCGTCCTTCCTCCTCCTGCTAGCATCTTCCACAGTAGAAGCAGGGGCAGGGACAGGATGGACTGTATATCCACCCTTAGCAGGCAACCTTGCCCACGCAGGAGCTTCAGTAGACCTAGCCATCTTCTCCCTCCACCTGGCAGGTGTCTCATCTATCCTGGGGGCAATTAACTTCATCACAACTGCCATCAACATAAAACCTCCAGCCCTTTCACAATACCAAACCCCCCTATTCGTATGATCTGTACTCATCACTGCCGTCCTACTCCTACTCTCACTCCCAGTCCTTGCTGCCGGCATTACCATACTACTAACAGATCGAAACCTAAACACTACATTCTTCGATCCAGCCGGAGGAGGGGACCCAGTCCTATATCAACACCTCTTCTGATTCTTTGGCCANNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Phoebastria immutabilis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S.

Contributor/s
Flint, B., Gilman, E., Lewison, R., Mitchell, L., Nisbet, I., Rivera, K., Shaffer, S. & Young, L.

Justification
This species has rebounded from declines in the late 1990s and early 2000s, perhaps because apparent changes in the breeding populations reflected large scale environmental conditions that affected the number of birds that returned to the colonies to nest rather than actual declines in the population. Given the difficulty of predicting long-term trends for such a long-lived species, and the number of documented threats and the uncertainty over their future effects, the species is precautionarily projected to undergo a moderately rapid population decline over three generations (84 years), and as such qualifies as Near Threatened (nearly qualifies for listing as threatened under criterion A4bd).


History
  • 2012
    Near Threatened (NT)
  • Near Threatened (NT)
  • Vulnerable (VU)
  • Vulnerable (VU)
  • Vulnerable (VU)
  • Vulnerable (VU)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)