Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Larus cachinnans can be found in eastern Europe, the Middle East, north-west Africa and central Asia. It is resident in much of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea. It also seasonally breeds from the Black Sea, across the north of the Caspian Sea to eastern Kazakhstan, and on the central Asian steppes. Wintering grounds include the coast of south-west Asia (breeders from the steppes), the north-west coast of Africa, and around the Arabian Peninsula up to north-west India.

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Azores to Central Asia
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© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Behaviour This species is fully migratory, though some colonies aroundthe Black and Caspian Sea may be resident (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Post-breeding movements to wintering areas occur from July to November, with the return migration occurring from mid-February to mid-June (Olsen and Larsson 2003). The species breeds from mid-March to April (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998), although the exact timing varies geographically (Olsen and Larsson 2003). It breeds colonially in groups of up to 8,000 pairs, and may nest in monospecific clusters within mixed-species colonies (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Outside of the breeding season the species remains gregarious, congregating around ports, harbours and refuse dumps (le Grand et al. 1984). Habitat Breeding During the breeding season the species nests near lakes surrounded by reedbeds (Olsen and Larsson 2003) in steppe and semi-desert (Central Asia) (del Hoyo et al. 1996), reservoirs, rivers (de Juana 1984), and on grassy or shrubby river islands (del Hoyo et al. 1996), also forming colonies on sea cliffs (de Juana 1984), rocky and sandy offshore islands, rocky coasts (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998), sandy beaches, spits (del Hoyo et al. 1996), sand-dunes, and salt-pans (Snow and Perrins 1998), and foraging in intertidal zones (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and in brackish coastal marshes (Snow and Perrins 1998). Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season the species is more common along the coast (e.g. at harbours and ports) and in other marine habitats (though seldom far from land). During this season it also forages in cultivated fields (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998, Olsen and Larsson 2003) and along rivers, and is especially common at refuse dumps (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998). Diet Its diet consists of fish, invertebrates (including insects, molluscs (Olsen and Larsson 2003) and crabs (Munilla 1997)), reptiles, small mammals (e.g. voles (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and ground squirrels (Snow and Perrins 1998)), refuse, offal, and bird eggs and chicks (del Hoyo et al. 1996) (e.g. of petrels and shearwaters) (le Grand et al. 1984). Breeding site The nest is constructed of nearby vegetation, feathers, debris and old carcasses, and is preferably positioned close to or under bushes (del Hoyo et al. 1996), or on rocky and sandy islands, beaches, spits, sea cliffs, grassy or shrubby river islands (del Hoyo et al. 1996), and occasionally on high ground hundreds of metres from water (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species breeds colonially in monospecific or mixed-species groups, with pairs usually nesting a few metres apart (del Hoyo et al. 1996).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 248 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 105 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 11.796 - 19.012
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.996 - 7.234
  Salinity (PPS): 34.704 - 37.870
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.022 - 6.500
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.068 - 0.630
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.042 - 4.938

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): 11.796 - 19.012

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.996 - 7.234

Salinity (PPS): 34.704 - 37.870

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.022 - 6.500

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.068 - 0.630

Silicate (umol/l): 1.042 - 4.938
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
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Depth range based on 248 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 105 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 11.796 - 19.012
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.996 - 7.234
  Salinity (PPS): 34.704 - 37.870
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.022 - 6.500
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.068 - 0.630
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.042 - 4.938

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): 11.796 - 19.012

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.996 - 7.234

Salinity (PPS): 34.704 - 37.870

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.022 - 6.500

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.068 - 0.630

Silicate (umol/l): 1.042 - 4.938
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 31.9 years (wild)
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Source: AnAge

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Larus cachinnans

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

ACTGCCCTC---AGCCTGCTTATCCGTGCAGAACTTGGCCNACCCGGAACCCTCCTAGGAGAC---GACCAAATCTATAACGTAATTGTCACCGCCCATGCCTTCGTGATAATCTTCTTCATAGTGATACCAATCATGATCGGTGGGTTTGGAAACTGACTAGTCCCACTTATA---ATCGGTGCCCCTGATATAGCATTTCCACGCATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTATTACCCCCATCATTCCTACTCCTCCTAGCCTCTTCCACAGTAGAAGCTGGAGCCGGCACAGGATGAACAGTATACCCCCCTCTAGCTGGCAATCTAGCTCATGCTGGAGCCTCAGTAGACCTA---GCAATCTTCTCTCTTCACTTAGCAGGTGTGTCTTCCATTCTGGGTGCTATCAACTTTATCACTACAGCCATCAACATAAAACCCCCTGCCCTCTCACAATATCAAACCCCACTATTCGTATGATCCGTACTCATCACTGCCGTCCTATTACTACTTTCACTCCCAGTGCTTGCCGCA---GGCATTACTATGCTACTTACAGACCGAAACCTAAACCCAACATTCTTCGATCCCGCCGGAGGCGGTGACCCTGTACTGTACCAACACCTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Larus cachinnans

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.


History
  • 2013
    Least Concern (LC)
  • 2012
    Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Not Recognized (NR)
  • Not Recognized (NR)
  • Not Recognized (NR)
  • Not Recognized (NR)
  • Not Recognized (NR)
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