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Range DescriptionHemignathus kauaiensis is endemic to Kaua`i in the Hawaiian Islands (USA). It is common in the uplands including the Alaka`i Wilderness Preserve and especially in KÃ´ke`e State Park, and an isolated population occurs in the Makaleha Mountains (USFWS 1983, Pratt 1993, Conant et al. 1998). Historically it ranged down to coastal elevations, as indicated by fossil evidence (P. Roberts in litt. 2007). During 1968-1973, surveys estimated the population at 10,743 (Â± 970 standard error), with 76% of the population in the "west of Alaka`i" study compartment (USFWS 1983). Subsequent population estimates suggested that the population was greater than 15,000, possibly up to 20,000 birds, and increasing (Scott et al. 1986, Jacobi and Atkinson 1995, Lindsey et al. 1998). In 1992, Hurricane Iniki devastated forests throughout Kaua`i and all bird populations on the island appeared to have been drastically reduced (Pratt 1993, 1994). However, population estimates suggest that this species has recovered (Jacobi and Atkinson 1995, Lindsey et al. 1998, P. Donaldson in litt. 1999, Foster et al. 2004), with the estimated population in the Alaka`i and KÃ´ke`e areas increasing significantly to around 42,000 individuals in 2000 (Foster et al. 2004).