Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Emberiza leucocephalos

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 5 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNCATGAGCCGGAATGGTAGGTACCGCCTTAAGCCTCCTCATCCGAGCAGAACTAGGCCAACCCGGAGCCCTCCTGGGAGACGACCAAGTCTACAACGTAGTCGTCACAGCCCACGCTTTCGTAATAATCTTCTTCATAGTTATACCAATTATGATCGGAGGGTTCGGAAACTGACTCGTCCCCCTAATAATCGGAGCCCCAGACATAGCATTCCCACGGATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCCCCATCCTTCCTGCTACTACTAGCATCTTCTACTGTAGAAGCGGGCGTAGGAACAGGCTGAACAGTGTACCCCCCACTAGCCGGAAACCTAGCCCATGCCGGAGCTTCGGTCGACCTCGCAATCTTCTCCCTTCACCTAGCCGGTATCTCTTCAATCCTGGGGGCAATCAACTTCATCACTACAGCAATCAACATAAAACCACCCGCCCTCTCACAATACCAAACCCCTCTATTCGTCTGATCAGTCTTAATTACCGCAGTCCTCCTGCTCCTGTCCCTCCCAGTCCTTGCCGCCGGCATTACAATACTACTCACGGACCGTAACCTTAACACCACATTCTTCGACCCTGCTGGAGGAGGAGACCCCGTCCTATACCAACATCTCTTCTGATTCTTCGGCCACCCAGAAGTCTANNNNNNNNNNNNN
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Emberiza leucocephalos

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
The global population size has not been quantified, though in Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 50-100 breeding pairs, equating to 150-300 individuals (BirdLife International 2004), with Europe forming <5% of the global range. National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in China; < c.1,000 individuals on migration and < c.1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; < c.1,000 individuals on migration and < c.1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Population Trend
Stable
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Wikipedia

Pine Bunting

The Pine Bunting (Emberiza leucocephalos) is a passerine bird in the bunting family Emberizidae, a group most modern authors now separate from the finches, Fringillidae.

Breeding and habitat[edit]

The Pine Bunting breeds across much of temperate Asia, migrating south to central Asia, north India and southern China in winter. It is common in all sorts of open land with some scrub or trees, including cultivation, but has a greater preference for open forest (usually pine) than the closely related Yellowhammer. It is a rare vagrant to western Europe, but often winters in NE Italy and Tuscany.

Appearance and song[edit]

The Pine Bunting is a robust 16-17.5-centimetre bird, with a thick seed-eater's bill. The male has a white crown and cheeks, and a chestnut forehead and throat, and a heavily streaked brown back. The female is much duller and is more streaked on its undersides. Non-breeding plumage is like that of a Yellowhammer, but with all the yellow replaced by white. Its song and calls are like those of the Yellowhammer.

Appearance of Pine Bunting × Yellowhammer hybrids[edit]

Hybrids between Pine Bunting and Yellowhammer show a mixture of characters. One such bird, a vagrant in Suffolk, England in 1982, the "Sizewell bunting", is documented and illustrated with photographs in British Birds [2]

Some doubt has been cast upon male birds which appear to all intents and purposes to be pure Pine Buntings, but show yellow primary fringes. Previously, in Britain, these were regarded as potentially hybrid birds, and not accepted by the British Birds Rarities Committee. However since 2004, BBRC has regarded these birds as acceptable if they also meet the following conditions:[3]

  • the lores must be chestnut, not black or grey
  • the throat must be extensively chestnut coloured, without a dark malar line or pale submoustachial line
  • the supercilium should be chestnut or grey, but not white
  • there should be no yellow on the head, or anywhere else except the primary fringes

Diet[edit]

The Pine Bunting's natural food consists of insects when feeding young and seeds at other times. The nest is on the ground. Four to six eggs are laid, which show the hair-like markings characteristic of the Bunting group.

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Emberiza leucocephalos". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Lansdown, Peter and Trevor D. Charlton (1990) 'The Sizewell Bunting': a hybrid Pine Bunting × Yellowhammer in Suffolk British Birds 83(6):240-242
  3. ^ British Birds 97(11):620-621
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