Habitat and Ecology
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Tinamus major
Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tinamus major
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, and the species’s susceptibility to habitat fragmentation and hunting, it is suspected that its population will decline by 25-30% over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Near Threatened.
Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.
Conservation Actions ProposedExpand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006).
The great tinamou (Tinamus major) also called mountain hen is a species of tinamou ground bird native to Central and South America. There are several subspecies, mostly differentiated by their coloration.
Great tinamou are approximately 44 cm (17 in) long, 1.1 kg (2.4 lb) in weight and size and shape of a small turkey. It ranges from light to dark olive-green in color with a whitish throat and belly, flanks barred black, and undertail cinnamon. Crown and neck rufous, occipital crest and supercilium blackish. Its legs are blue-grey in color. All these features enable great tinamou to be well-camouflaged in the rainforest understory.
The great tinamou has a distinctive call, three short, tremulous, but powerful piping notes which can be heard in its rainforest habitat in the early evenings.
All tinamous are from the family Tinamidae, and are the closest living relatives of the ratites. Unlike ratites, tinamous can fly, although in general, they are not strong fliers. All ratites evolved from prehistoric flying birds.
There are twelve sub-species
- T. m. percautus occurs in southeastern Mexico (Yucatan Peninsula), Belize, and Petén department in Guatemala.
- T. m. robustus occurs in the lowlands of southeastern Mexico, Guatemala, and northern Nicaragua.
- T. m. fuscipennis occurs in northern Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and western Panama.
- T. m. castaneiceps occurs in southwestern Costa Rica and western Panama.
- T. m. brunniventris occurs in south central Panama.
- T. m. saturatus occurs on Pacific slope of eastern Panama and northwestern Colombia.
- T. m. latifrons occurs in southwestern Colombia and western Ecuador.
- T. m. zuliensis occurs in northeastern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela.
- T. m. major occurs in eastern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana and northeastern Brazil.
- T. m. olivascens occurs in Brazilian Amazon.
- T. m. peruvianus occurs in southeastern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, eastern Bolivia, western Brazil, and eastern Peru.
- T. m. serratus occurs in extreme southern Venezuela and northwestern Brazil
The picture at the right is a polygynandrous species, and one that features exclusive male parental care. A female will mate with a male and lay an average of four eggs which he then incubates until hatching. He cares for the chicks for approximately 3 weeks before moving on to find another female. Meanwhile, the female has left clutches of eggs with other males. She may start nests with five or six males during each breeding season, leaving all parental care to the males. The breeding season is long, lasting from mid-winter to late summer. The eggs are large, shiny, and bright blue or violet in color, and the nests are usually rudimentary scrapings in the buttress roots of trees.
Except during mating, when a pair stay together until the eggs are laid, great tinamous are solitary and roam the dark understory alone, seeking seeds, fruit, and small animals such as insects, spiders, frogs and small lizards in the leaf litter. They are especially fond of Lauraceae, annonaceae, myrtaceae, sapotaceae.
Great tinamou lives in subtropical and tropical forest such as rainforest, lowland evergreen forest, river-edge forest, swamp forest and cloud forest at altitudes from 300–1,500 m (1,000–4,900 ft). Unlike some other tinamous, the great tinamou isn't as affected by forest fragmentation. Its nest can be found at the base of a tree.
This species is widespread throughout its large range (6,600,000 km2 (2,500,000 sq mi)), and it was evaluated as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. They are hunted with no major effect on their population. In 2012 the species was reclassified as Near Threatened.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Tinamus major". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Brands, S. (2008)
- American Ornithologists' Union (1998)
- Davies, S. J. J. F. (2003)
- Clements, J (2007)
- BirdLife International (2008)
- "Recently recategorised species". Birdlife International. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- American Ornithologists' Union (1998) . "Tinamiformes: Tinamidae: Tinamous" (PDF). Check-list of North American Birds (7th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Ornithologists' Union . p. 1 . ISBN 1-891276-00-X.
- BirdLife International (2008). "Great Tinamou - BirdLife Species Factsheet". Data Zone. Retrieved 6 Feb 2009.
- Brands, Sheila (Aug 14, 2008). "Systema Naturae 2000 / Classification, Tinamus major". Project: The Taxonomicon. Retrieved Feb 4, 2009.
- Brennan, P. T. R. (2004). Techniques for studying the behavioral ecology of forest-dwelling tinamous (Tinamidae). Ornitologia Neotropical 15(Suppl.) 329-337.
- Clements, James (2007). The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World (6 ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4501-9.
- Davies, S.J.J.F. (2003). "Tinamous". In Hutchins, Michael. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. 8 Birds I Tinamous and Ratites to Hoatzins (2 ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. pp. 57–59, 61–62. ISBN 0-7876-5784-0.
- Stiles, & Skutch, A guide to the birds of Costa Rica ISBN 0-8014-9600-4
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