Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Calonectris diomedea breeds in Algeria, Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Spain (excluding the Canary Islands), Tunisia and Turkey (Derhé 2012). The majority of the population spends the non-breeding season in the Atlantic, including areas off the west coast of Africa and east coast of Brazil (Péron et al. 2012). The global population is thought to be in slow decline overall, although more research is required (Derhé 2012, Carboneras et al. 2013).
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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Transient

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Non-breeding

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Global Range: Breeds in eastern Atlantic Ocean (Azores, Berlenga Island off Portugal, and in Madeira, Canary, and Cape Verde islands), and Mediterranean Sea (Gibralter locally east to Adriatic Sea, Balkans, Turkey and Near East). Ranges widely at sea. Seen off east coast of North America primarily in summer and fall (NGS 1983).

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North America; range extends from the Scotian shelf to the Gulf of Mexico
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Atlantic Ocean from northeastern United States to northwestern Europe, into the Mediterranean Sea, and south to Brazil and South Africa.
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Physical Description

Size

Length: 46 cm

Weight: 535 grams

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Length: 46-53 cm, Wingspan: 111 cm
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Pelagic movements are easily divided into frequent foraging trips around the breeding areas, rapid, long-distance migrations, and smaller-scale movements within a well defined wintering ground (González-Solís et al. 2007). Breeding starts in April on barren offshore islands, occupying cliffs, caves and boulder fields (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Diet is mostly squid, which are obtained mainly by surface-seizing. It is regularly attracted to trawlers to feed on offal (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Marine
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Comments: Pelagic. Eggs are laid in burrows or crevices on islands; nests in large colonies (up to 10s of 1000s of pairs) on isolated islands, in smaller colonies on offshore islets and inaccessible mainland cliffs (up to 32 km inland) (Palmer 1962).

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Depth range based on 2441 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2224 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 1750
  Temperature range (°C): 3.871 - 27.645
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.147 - 18.311
  Salinity (PPS): 30.701 - 37.870
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.545 - 7.729
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.045 - 1.163
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.565 - 13.588

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 1750

Temperature range (°C): 3.871 - 27.645

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.147 - 18.311

Salinity (PPS): 30.701 - 37.870

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.545 - 7.729

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.045 - 1.163

Silicate (umol/l): 0.565 - 13.588
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Open ocean, rocky islands.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Migrates between breeding and nonbreeding habitats.

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Main wintering area is off Southern Africa.
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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Eats large squids and crustaceans taken at night from surface of ocean, to a lesser extent follows schools of fishes such as mackerel to feed on young fishes driven in toward shore (Terres 1980).

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Fish, squid, and crustaceans.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: Normally nocturnal and crepuscular at breeding places (Palmer 1962).

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Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Observations: Little is known about the longevity of these animals, though they have been reported to live up to 16.1 years in the wild (http://www.euring.org/data_and_codes/longevity.htm). Considering the longevity of similar species, maximum longevity could be significantly underestimated and is thus classified as unknown.
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Reproduction

Egg laying occurs in May-June. Eggs hatch generally in late July to early August. Clutch size: 1. Both sexes incubate, with change-over at intervals of 2-3 days or longer. Young first fly mid- to late October. Nests in colonies of up to 10,000s of pairs.

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Builds nests in burrows on oceanic islands, in large colonies. 1 egg, incubated for 52-56 days by both partners. Young hatchling is fed at night by both parents. Leaves nest after about 90 days.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Calonectris diomedea

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CGATGACTATTCTCAACTAACCACAAAGACATTGGTACTTTATATCTAATTTTCGGCGCATGAGCTGGTATAGTCGGAACCGCCCTC---AGCCTACTCATCCGTGCAGAACTCGGTCAACCAGGAACACTCCTAGGAGAT---GACCAAATCTACAATGTAATCGTTACCGCCCATGCTTTCGTAATAATCTTCTTCATAGTGATGCCCGTCATAATCGGGGGATTCGGAAACTGACTAGTCCCCCTCATA---ATCGGTGCACCTGACATAGCATTCCCACGTATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGATTACTACCCCCCTCCTTTCTCCTCCTACTAGCCTCATCTACAGTCGAAGCAGGAGCAGGTACAGGATGAACTGTATACCCTCCCCTAGCTGGTAACCTAGCCCATGCTGGAGCCTCAGTCGACCTG---GCCATCTTCTCCCTCCACCTAGCAGGTGTATCCTCCATCCTAGGAGCAATCAACTTCATTACAACAGCTATCAACATAAAACCCCCAGCCTTATCACAATACCAAACTCCCCTATTCGTATGATCCGTACTTATCACTGCCGTTCTACTTCTACTTTCACTCCCAGTCCTCGCTGCA---GGAATCACCATACTACTAACAGACCGTAACCTAAACACTACATTCTTTGACCCAGCTGGTGGAGGAGACCCAGTCCTATACCAACACCTTTTCTGATTCTTTGGTCACCCAGAAGTTTACATCCTCATCCTACCAGGATTCGGAATCATCTCACACGTAGTAACATACTATGCAGGTAAAAAA---GAACCGTTTGGCTATATAGGAATAGTATGAGCCATGCTTTCAATCGGATTCCTAGGTTTTATTGTATGAGCCCACCACATATTTACAGTAGGGATAGATGTAGACACCCGAGCGTACTTCACATCCGCTACTATAATTATCGCTATTCCAACAGGTATTAAAGTCTTCAGCTGATTA---GCTACCTTACATGGAGGA---ACAATCAAATGAGACCCCCCAATACTATGAGCCCTTGGCTTCATTTTCCTTTTTACTATTGGAGGTCTAACAGGAATTGTCCTAGCAAACTCCTCACTAGACATTGCCCTGCATGACACATACTATGTAGTTGCCCACTTCCATTATGTC---CTCTCAATAGGAGCTGTCTTTGCAATCCTAGCAGGATTCACCCACTGATTCCCACTATTTACAGGATACACCCTACATCCTACATGAGCCAAAGCCCACTTCGGAGTCATATTTACAGGTGTAAACTTAACCTTCTTCCCACAACACTTCCTAGGCCTAGCTGGCATACCACGA---CGATACTCCGACTATCCAGACGCTTACACC---CTATGAAATACTATGTCCTCTATCGGCTCACTAATCTCAATGACTGCCGTAATCATACTAATATTCATTATCTGAGAAGCCTTTGCATCAAAACGAAAAGTC---CTACAACCTGAATTAACCGCCACTAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Calonectris diomedea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5N - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Status in Egypt

Regular passage visitor and winter visitor.

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No official conservation status.
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Population

Population
The species has been estimated to have a population of 142,478-222,886 pairs (Derhé 2012, Carboneras et al. 2013), assumed here to be equivalent to c.285,000-446,000 mature individuals. This estimate follows recent surveys of the largest colony on Zembra Island, Tunisia, which resulted in an alternative revised estimate for the total breeding population of 179,000-193,000 pairs (Defos du Rau et al. 2012).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The main threats to C. diomedea include the impacts of invasive, non-native mammals and mortality from fisheries bycatch (Derhé 2012, Carboneras et al. 2013). Recent studies have highlighted the pressures imposed by introduced mammal species, and colonies have shown marked increases in breeding success during mammal control measures (e.g. Igual et al. 2006, Pascal et al. 2008). C. diomedea is one of the most frequent seabird species to occur in bycatch in the Mediterranean (Valeiras and Caminas 2003, García-Barcelona et al. 2010, Laneri et al. 2010), with estimates of the number of individuals killed annually by Spanish fleets ranging from 200 (García-Barcelona et al. 2010) to 467-1,867 (estimated 4-6% of the local breeding population; Belda and Sanchez 2001). There have been fewer assessments of the impacts of long-line and other national fisheries on this species. Results from a questionnaire suggest an annual bycatch of up to 1,220 individuals of C. diomedea by Maltese fleets (8.5-10% of the breeding population), although this is likely to be an over-estimate skewed by high bycatch in a small number of vessels (Dimech et al. unpubl. per Derhé 2012). The species may also suffer significant bycatch in its non-breeding range (e.g. Granadeiro et al. 2006).
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Wikipedia

Cory's shearwater

The Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) is a large shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae.

This species breeds on islands and cliffs in the Mediterranean and North Atlantic (mostly among the Azores islands), with the odd outpost on the Atlantic coast of Iberia. They nest on open ground or among rocks or less often in a burrow where one white egg is laid. The burrow is visited at night to minimise predation from large gulls. In late summer and autumn, most birds migrate into the Atlantic as far north as the south-western coasts of Great Britain and Ireland. They return to the Mediterranean in February. The biggest colony is located in Savage Islands, Madeira.

This bird flies with long glides, and always with wings bowed and angled slightly back, unlike the stiff, straight-winged flight of the similarly sized great shearwater.

This shearwater is identifiable by its size, at 45–56 cm in length and with a 112–126 cm wingspan. It has brownish-grey upperparts, white underparts and a yellowish bill. It lacks the brown belly patch, dark shoulder markings and black cap of the great shearwater.

There are two subspecies, the Mediterranean subspecies C. d. diomedea, and the Atlantic subspecies C. d. borealis. They are similar in appearance, although the Atlantic race is larger with a stouter bill. They are best distinguished by the pattern of the underwing. Being fairly distinct (Heidrich et al. 1998), they are sometimes regarded as separate species, C. d. diomedea then being named Scopoli's shearwater.

Cory's shearwater feeds on fish, molluscs and offal, and can dive deep (50 feet/15 metres or more) in search of prey. It readily follows fishing boats, where it indulges in noisy squabbles. This is a gregarious species, which can be seen in large numbers from ships or appropriate headlands. The Bay of Biscay ferries are particularly good for this species. It is silent at sea, but at night the breeding colonies are alive with raucous cackling calls.

This bird was named after the American ornithologist Charles B. Cory.

The Cape Verde shearwater C. edwardsii (Oustalet, 1883) was once considered a subspecies of Cory's shearwater but has recently been split off as a separate species (Snow & Perrins 1998). It is endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. It has an all dark, slim bill, and darker head and upperparts than Cory's. The flight has been described as rather more typically shearwater-like than the Cory's, with stiffer and more rapid wing beats.

References[edit]

  • Bull, John L.; Farrand, John Jr.; Rayfield, Susan & National Audubon Society (1977): The Audubon Society field guide to North American birds, Eastern Region. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. ISBN 0-394-41405-5
  • Harrison, Peter (1983): Seabirds: An Identification Guide. Croom Helm, Beckenham. ISBN 0-7099-1207-2
  • Heidrich, Petra; Amengual, José F. & Wink, Michael (1998): Phylogenetic relationships in Mediterranean and North Atlantic shearwaters (Aves: Procellariidae) based on nucleotide sequences of mtDNA. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 26(2): 145–170. doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(97)00085-9 PDF fulltext
  • Snow, David W.; Perrins, Christopher M. & Gillmor, Robert (1998): The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850187-0
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Calonectris edwardsii was previously considered conspecific with C. diomedea. See Patteson and Armistead (2004) for a synopsis of the rationale for treatment as separate species.

Placed in genus Puffinus in Terres (1980).

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