The Yellow-headed Amazon complex includes several forms that are regarded as subspecies by some authorities and as full species by others. Juniper and Parr (1998) recognized three distinct species: the Yellow-crowned Amazon (A. ochrocephala), the Yellow-headed Amazon (A. oratrix), and the Yellow-naped Amazon (A. auropalliata). However, they noted that the status of these taxa was unresolved and that, for example, the presence of forms intermediate between the Yellow-headed Amazon and Yellow-naped Amazon suggests that they might better be treated as belonging to a single species. They also pointed out that clarifying the situation is made more complex by possibly age-related plumage variation and substantial individual variation within currently recognized subspecies. Although Juniper and Parr provisionally recognized three distinct species, for similar reasons Collar (1997) and others have provisionally treated the various forms as members of a single highly variable species. Subsequent molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed even more taxonomic complexity. Investigations by Eberhard and Bermingham (2004) and Russello and Amato (2004) indicated that the Blue-fronted Amazon (A. aestiva) may in fact be nested within the Yellow-headed complex (Russello and Amato concluded that the Yellow-shouldered Amazon, A. barbadensis, also falls within this group). Further sampling and analysis by Ribas et al. (2007) provided additional evidence indicating that actual evolutionary relationships among genetic lineages in this group may not be well reflected by the plumage variations by which the traditional taxa are defined (see below). (Ribas et al. and references therein should be consulted for more details.)
As traditionally defined, "Yellow-naped Amazons" have yellow limited to the nape and, sometimes, the forehead and forecrown. "Yellow-crowned Amazons" are mainly green with yellow feathers on the forehead and forecrown, sometimes extending onto the lores (the area between the bill and the eyes) and around the eyes. and often with a red spot at the base of the upper mandible (birds in the western Amazon basin have a green forehead). "Yellow-headed Amazons" are similar in appearance but have yellow extending over the entire head (immatures are largely green with little or no yellow on the head and little or no red and yellow on the wing).
Yellow-naped Amazons move quietly in the treetops and fly well above the canopy with rapid, shallow wingbeats. They are found in semi-arid woodland, arid scrub and savanna (including pure Pinus savanna), openings in tropical deciduous and Pacific swamp forest, evergreen gallery forest, and sometimes second growth in agricultural areas. They have been reported to 600 m in Guatemala and 700 m in Honduras. Nests are in unlined cavities of living or dead trees.
"Yellow-naped Amazons" occur in Middle America in the eastern Pacific lowlands of Mexico, Guatemala (possibly), El Salvador (lower arid tropical zone), Honduras, and Nicaragua to northwestern Costa Rica (from the southern end of the Gulf of Nicoya northward). "Yellow-headed Amazons" are confined to Middle America in Mexico, Belize, extreme eastern Guatemala, and extreme northwestern Honduras. Feral populations are established in Miami (Florida, U.S.A.) and Puerto Rico. These birds are local and uncommon throughout most of their range, with populations severely depleted by habitat loss and trapping for the pet trade both within and outside the native range. The "Yellow-crowned Amazon" is found in Panama (and possibly Honduras) in Middle America and in South America south to eastern Brazil and northern Bolivia (it is rare in Trinidad).
(Collar 1997 and references therein; Juniper and Parr 1998 and references therein)
- Collar, N.J. 1997. Yellow-crowned Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala). Pp. 473-474 in: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., and Sargatal, J., eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 4. Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
- Eberhard, J.R. and E. Bermingham. 2004. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Amazona ochrocephala (Aves: Psittacidae) complex. Auk 121: 318–332.
- Juniper, T. and M. Parr. 1998. Parrots: A Guide to Parrots of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.
- Ribas, C.C., E.S. Tavares, C. Yoshihara, and C.Y. Miyaki. 2007. Phylogeny and biogeography of Yellow-headed and Blue-fronted Parrots (Amazona ochrocephala and Amazona aestiva) with special reference to the South American taxa. Ibis 149: 564-574.
- Russello, M.A. and G. Amato. 2004. A molecular phylogeny of Amazona: implications for Neotropical parrot biogeography, taxonomy, and conservation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 421-437.
Habitat and Ecology
Life History and Behavior
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amazona auropalliata
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
CITES Appendix I. The species occurs in a number of protected areas. Efforts have been underway to get a c.4,000-ha area east Monterrico on the Pacific coast of Guatemala declared as a protected area (C. Muccio in litt. 2011). The species has been the subject of a number of local studies, some on-going, aimed at gathering information on population trends and threats. The extent of wildlife exploitation for trade has been highlighted by local media, for example in Honduras (per O. Andino in litt. 2011).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out coordinated surveys across the species's range in order to quantify the total population size. Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Monitor rates of off-take for trade through regular surveys of local people and officials. Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation throughout the species's range. Conduct awareness-raising activities to reduce exploitation. Increase the area of suitable habitat that receives effective protection.
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Deforestation is reducing the number of these parrots in the wild together with illegal removal of young for the pet trade. This parrot readily mimics sounds, and in captivity this includes human speech, which is probably the reason it is popular in aviculture. Like all parrots, however, mimic abilities vary greatly between individuals.
The yellow-naped amazon is distinguished by its green forehead and crown and a yellow band across the lower nape (back part of neck) and hindneck. The beak is dark gray and is paler towards the base of the upper mandible. The feet are also dark gray.
Three subspecies are recognized:
- Amazona a. auropalliata: Southern Mexico to north-western Costa Rica.
- Amazona a. parvipes: Mosquito Coast in eastern Honduras and north-eastern Nicaragua.
- Amazona a. caribaea: Bay Islands, Honduras.
Range and habitat
Yellow-naped amazons are highly sought after for their talking ability and playful personalities. They are also known for nest-protective behaviors that often lead them to bite. This is particularly common in, but not limited to, males during the breeding season.
A rare blue mutation of the yellow-naped amazon is known to exist, in which the entire body is turquoise in color.
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