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BiologyThe highly social red-necked Amazon flocks in groups of 30 or more during the non-breeding season, but becomes highly territorial during the nesting season. Breeding occurs from January to June, with fledging from May through to August - sometimes later still (2) (7). Nests are made in deep cavities formed in rainforest trees, with pairs showing high nest site fidelity, often occupying the same nest cavity for many years. Although the female produces a clutch of three eggs, which she incubates for about 26 to 28 days, breeding pairs usually successfully fledge only two chicks per year (2). Both the male and female are actively involved in care and feeding of the young from hatching to well past fledging. Their larger clutch size than other large island Amazons, combined with both parents investing in rearing, is thought to help explain how the red-necked Amazon has rebounded so quickly following the population crash it experienced as a result of the 1979 and 1980 hurricanes (9). Another factor thought to have helped this particular Amazon species recover is its adaptation to exploiting the readily accessible cultivated citrus fruits, supplementing its natural diet of fruits, flowers, shoots and seeds of more than 30 species of rainforest trees and plants (2) (9). Unfortunately, this practice is also likely to establish the bird as an enemy of farmers within its range (6).