Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Pionites leucogaster is distributed from the Rio Madeira to Maranhão, Brazil, and is characterised as common across most of its range (del Hoyo et al. 1997).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs along watercourses in lowland tropical rainforest. It preferentially occurs in várzea (seasonally flooded forest), although it is also found in terra firme forest (with no flooding). In the east of its range it is known to breed in January; the nest is made in a tree hollow c.30 m above the ground (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 26 years (captivity) Observations: One specimen lived for 26 years in captivity (Brouwer et al. 2000).
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Joao Pedro de Magalhaes

Source: AnAge

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pionites leucogaster

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
A4cd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S.

Contributor/s
Lees, A.

Justification

Based on a model of deforestation in the Amazon basin, and the potential susceptibility of this newly split species to hunting, it is suspected that its population will decline very rapidly over three generations from 2002, and it is therefore listed as Endangered.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. (1996).

Population Trend
Decreasing
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
The primary threat to this species is accelerating rates of deforestation in the Amazon basin (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (who would subsequently be absolved of the need to reforest illegally cleared land) (Bird et al. 2011). Despite being common in undisturbed landscapes, this species is not thought to be tolerant of secondary forest or agropastoral land and appears restricted to alluvial habitats. It may also be susceptible to hunting (A. Lees in litt. 2011).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions Underway
No targeted conservation actions are known for this species.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

White-bellied parrot

The Green-thighed parrot (Pionites leucogaster) is one of the four species in the genus Pionites of the Psittacidae family.[2] Originally the species Pionites leucogaster (also known as the White-bellied parrot or White-bellied caique in the aviculture business) contain three subspecies including the nominate race, but recent morphological work suggests the species should be split into three.[2]

It is found in humid forest and wooded habitats in the Amazon south of the Amazon River in Brazil. It is generally fairly common throughout its range and is easily seen in a wide range of protected areas, such as the Cristalino State Park (near Alta Floresta), Xingu National Park and Amazônia National Park in Brazil.

Description[edit]

The Green-thighed parrot has an orange-yellow head and vent, a white belly, green wings, thighs and back, bluish primary feathers, a pinkish-horn beak, and pinkish legs and feet. Juveniles have brownish or black feathers on the head and nape, yellow feathers on the white belly, and greyish legs. Generally, the off-colored feathers will be lost and replaced by orange or white feathers respectively as the bird matures. Young birds also have dark brown irises, which will change to a rust or orange with age. The white breast feathers of wild caiques are often stained a chestnut brown (or "isobel") color. This may be due to tannin staining, as result of their particular affinity for bathing by rubbing their bodies against wet leaves and other plant matter.[3]

The head and nape plumage of the white-bellied parrot has been observed to fluoresce strongly under ultraviolet light.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Pionites leucogaster". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b del Hoyo, J., Collar, N. & Kirwan, G.M. (2014). Black-legged Parrot (Pionites xanthomerius). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) (2014). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/467506 on 3 January 2015)
  3. ^ McMichael, John. "Color". The Caique Site. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  4. ^ Davidhazy, Andrew. "More Scientific and Technical Photographs". Retrieved 19 December 2013. 
  • Collar, N. (1997). Pionites leucogaster (White-bellied Parrot). Pp. 457 in: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., & Sargatal, J. eds (1997). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 4. Sangrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-22-9
  • Parr, M., & Juniper, T. (1998). A Guide to the Parrots of the World. Pica Press, East Sussex. ISBN 1-873403-40-2
  • Schulenberg, T., Stotz, D. Lane, D., O'Neill, J, & Parker, T. (2007). Birds of Peru. Helm, London. ISBN 978-0-7136-8673-9
  • Sigrist, T. (2006). Aves do Brasil - Uma Visão Artistica. ISBN 85-905074-1-6
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!