Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Pionites leucogaster is a polytypic Amazonian species. It is common across most of its range. Subspecies xanthomeria is abundant in parts of east Peru, and is present in Manu National Park. It also occurs in north Bolivia, although it may have been extirpated from Santa Cruz as a result of habitat destruction. This taxon's range extends as far as west Brazil. Subspecies xanthurus occurs in Brazil, from Rio Purús and Rio Juruá to Rio Madeira. The nominate subspecies leucogaster of north Brazil is distributed from Rio Madeira to Maranhão (del Hoyo et al. 1997).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs along watercourses in lowland tropical rainforest. It preferentially occurs in "várzea" (seasonally flooded forest), although it is also found in "terra firme" forest (with no flooding). In the east of its range it is known to breed in January; the nest is made in a tree hollow c.30 m above the ground (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 26 years (captivity) Observations: One specimen lived for 26 years in captivity (Brouwer et al. 2000).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pionites leucogaster

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A3c

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Taylor, J. & Butchart, S.

Contributor/s
Lees, A.

Justification

Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, and its potential susceptibility to hunting, it is suspected that the population of this species will decline rapidly over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Vulnerable.

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Population

Population
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. (1996).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
The primary threat to this species is accelerating rates of deforestation in the Amazon basin (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Despite being common in undisturbed landscapes, it is not thought to be tolerant of secondary forest or agropastoral land and appears restricted to alluvial habitats. It may also be susceptible to hunting (A. Lees in litt. 2011). Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (who would subsequently be absolved of the need to reforest illegally cleared land) (Bird et al. 2011).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.
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Wikipedia

White-bellied Parrot

The White-bellied Parrot (Pionites leucogaster), in aviculture often referred to as the White-bellied Caique, is one of the two species in the genus Pionites of the Psittacidae family; the other species being the allopatric Black-headed Parrot. Both species are popular as pets.

It is found in humid forest and nearby wooded habitats in the Amazon south of the Amazon River in Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru. It is generally fairly common throughout its range and is easily seen in a wide range of protected areas, such as the Manú National Park and Tambopata-Candamo in Peru, Cristalino State Park (near Alta Floresta), Xingu National Park and Amazônia National Park in Brazil, and Madidi National Park in Bolivia.

Description[edit]

The White-bellied Parrot has an orange-yellow head and vent, a white belly, green wings and back, bluish primary feathers, a pinkish-horn beak, and pinkish legs and feet. Juveniles have brownish or black feathers on the head and nape, yellow feathers on the white belly, and greyish legs. Generally, the off-colored feathers will be lost and replaced by orange or white feathers respectively as the bird matures. Young birds also have dark brown irises, which will change to a rust or orange with age. The white breast feathers of wild Caiques are often stained a chestnut brown (or 'isobel') colour. This may be tannin staining, as result of their particular affinity for bathing by rubbing their bodies against wet leaves and other plant matter.[2]

The head and nape plumage of the White-bellied Parrot has been observed to fluoresce strongly under ultraviolet light.[3]

Subspecies[edit]

Green-thighed Caique
  • Green-thighed Parrot/Caique (Pionites leucogaster leucogaster). Found in the eastern part of its range. It has green thighs and upper tail.
  • Yellow-thighed Parrot/Caique (P. l. xanthomerius). Found in western part of its range. It has yellow thighs and green upper tail.
  • Yellow-tailed Parrot/Caique (P. l. xanthurus). Found in the central part of its range. It has yellow thighs and upper tail.

The Yellow-thighed is the subspecies most commonly kept as a pet in the United States. The Green-thighed is somewhat rare in captivity, and Yellow-tailed is very rare in captivity.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Pionites leucogaster". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ McMichael, John. "Color". The Caique Site. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  3. ^ Davidhazy, Andrew. "More Scientific and Technical Photographs". Retrieved 19 December 2013. 
  • Collar, N. (1997). Pionites leucogaster (White-bellied Parrot). Pp. 457 in: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., & Sargatal, J. eds (1997). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 4. Sangrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-22-9
  • Parr, M., & Juniper, T. (1998). A Guide to the Parrots of the World. Pica Press, East Sussex. ISBN 1-873403-40-2
  • Schulenberg, T., Stotz, D. Lane, D., O'Neill, J, & Parker, T. (2007). Birds of Peru. Helm, London. ISBN 978-0-7136-8673-9
  • Sigrist, T. (2006). Aves do Brasil - Uma Visão Artistica. ISBN 85-905074-1-6
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