Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pyrrhura frontalis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'common' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
The species has been heavily traded: since 1981, when it was listed on CITES Appendix II, 52,523 wild-caught individuals have been recorded in international trade (UNEP-WCMC CITES Trade Database, January 2005).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed under CITES Appendix II.
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Wikipedia

Maroon-bellied Parakeet

The Maroon-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura frontalis) is a small parrot found from southeastern Brazil to north-eastern Argentina, including eastern Paraguay and Uruguay. It is also known as the Reddish-bellied Parakeet, and in aviculture it is usually referred to as the Maroon-bellied Conure, Reddish-bellied Conure or Brown-eared Conure.

It has been suggested that the Reddish-bellied Parakeet should include the Blaze-winged Parakeet (P. devillei) as a subspecies based on intermediate specimens from Paraguay. But such hybrids are not common in the wild and the two populations generally maintain their integrity; recent sources are undecided on whether to treat them as one species or two.[2]

Description[edit]

These birds range from 25 to 28 cm (10–11 in), and are primarily green, with a maroon patch on the belly, a "scaly" yellow-green-barred breast and sides of neck, a whitish ear-patch often tinged brown, and a maroon undertail. The specific name frontalis is a reference to its dark maroon frontlet - a feature which separates it from most similar species. The primaries are blue on the outer webs, green on the inner webs, and dark on the tips. The beak is black.

There are two subspecies, with extensive intergradation where their ranges contact:

Uppertail greenish-yellow grading into a broad reddish tip.
Uppertail entirely greenish-yellow.
P. f. chiripepe at Cerrito, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Another subspecies, kriegi, was described from Bahia in 1932, but today it is universally considered a junior synonym of the nominate subspecies. Distinguished by a narrow brownish-red tip to the tail, it consititutes just a morph or an intermediate genotype making up just 20% of the specimens even in the supposed range. The name Krieg's Conure is occasionally used in aviculture for such birds, and some breed them exclusively; they are of course perfectly interfertile with individuals of the normal morph however.

Ecology[edit]

The Maroon-bellied Parakeet is common in woodland, and forest edges. In the northern part of its range, it mainly lives in highlands up to 1,400 m (4,600 ft), but elsewhere it is primarily found in lowlands up to 1,000 m (3,300 ft). Tolerates disturbance well and even lives in urban parks (e.g., Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo) and feeds in gardens. Flock size is usually only 6-12 individuals, but up to 40. As other members of the genus Pyrrhura, it primarily feeds on fruits, flowers, and similar plant matter; they rarely participate in mixed-species feeding flock.[3]

It is generally common and not considered threatened by the IUCN.[4] Though there is little trade in these parrots, captive-bred birds are occasionally available as pets. Maroon-bellied Parakeets can learn to talk, although not clearly. They are among the quietest conures, but their shrill voices still irritate some people.

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Pyrrhura frontalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Juniper & Parr (1998)
  3. ^ Machado (1999)
  4. ^ BLI (2008)
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