Overview

Distribution

Range

Arid littoral of w Ecuador and nw Peru.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Range Description

Psittacara erythrogenys occurs from Manabí, north-west Ecuador, south to Lambayeque and Cajamarca, north-west Peru, with the high Andes marking its easternmost limit, at least in Ecuador (Best et al. 1995, Juniper and Parr 1998, Clements and Shany 2001). There are very few records from the centre of its range, in Guayas, El Oro and Azuay, Ecuador, which may effectively divide the population into two distinct sub-populations (Best et al. 1995). The total population is unlikely to be smaller than 10,000, with the majority occurring in Ecuador (Best et al. 1995). Although considered 'common' in parts of its range (Best and Clarke 1991, Best 1992, Williams and Tobias 1994, Clements and Shany 2001), there have been severe local declines (Ridgely 1981a, Best et al. 1995), and there is recent anecdotal evidence that numbers are still falling (E. Horstman in litt. 2011, R. Orrantia and J. Baquerizo in litt. 2011).

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It occurs in a range of habitats - from humid forest through deciduous forest, dry Acacia scrub to open, sparsely vegetated desert and intensely farmed areas to towns - but principally inhabits arid areas (Juniper and Parr 1998), from sea-level to 2,500 m, but most frequently below 1,500 m (Best et al. 1995). It nests in tree cavities, but the extent to which it tolerates logged forest and can breed successfully in small woodlots or even isolated trees is unclear (Best et al. 1995). Observations indicate that it can persist in highly degraded forest (E. Horstman in litt. 2011).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 26.2 years (captivity) Observations: One specimen was still alive after 26.2 years in captivity (Brouwer et al. 2000).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Aratinga erythrogenys

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s
Baquerizo, J., Horstman, E. & Orrantia, R.

Justification
This species has a moderately small population which has suffered some severe local declines (primarily owing to trapping) but remains common in some other areas. The overall population decline is likely to be moderately rapid. It is consequently classified as Near Threatened.

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Population

Population
This species's population size has not been formally estimated, but, in the absence of sufficient data, it is preliminarily suspected to number more than 10,000 individuals, roughly equivalent to 6,700 mature individuals.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
It suffers heavily from local trade in Peru and Ecuador, where it is a common and highly sought-after pet (Best and Clarke 1991, Williams and Tobias 1994, Best et al. 1995). It is also internationally traded from Peru, but its status is clouded by the misdeclaring of traded birds (Inskipp and Corrigan 1992) and pre-trade mortality (Ramos and Iñigo 1985), which both demonstrate the complexities of estimating true numbers taken from the wild (Best et al. 1995). The species is frequently confiscated by the Ecuadorian authorities (E. Horstman in litt. 2011, R. Orrantia and J. Baquerizo in litt. 2011). Despite the threat of trapping, the main causes of recent declines may be habitat loss and fragmentation (R. Orrantia and J. Baquerizo in litt. 2011).

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to obtain a population estimate. Research current threat from trade. Enforce trade restrictions. Census and monitor population. Monitor rates of habitat loss and fragmentation. Study its ability to persist in altered and fragmented habitats.

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Wikipedia

Red-masked parakeet

Juvenile starting to get a few red feathers on its head.

The red-masked parakeet (Psittacara erythrogenys)[2] is a medium-sized parrot from Ecuador and Peru. It is popular as a pet and are known in aviculture as the cherry-headed conure or the red-headed conure.[3] They are also considered the best talkers of all the conures.[4]

Taxonomy and evolution[edit]

Description[edit]

Red-masked parakeets average about 33 cm (13 in) long, of which half is the tail.[5] They are bright green with a mostly red head on which the elongated pale eye-ring is conspicuous; the nape is green. Also, the lesser and median underwing coverts are red, and there is some red on the neck, the thighs, and the leading edge of the wings. Juveniles have green plumage, until their first red feathers appear at around the age of four months. Its call is two-syllabled, harsh and loud.

Habitat and distribution[edit]

These birds are native to southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru, where they primarily live in jungle and deciduous forest. They can also thrive in semiarid regions as well as in suburban regions.[6] While they can live up to 2,500 meters above sea level, they are usually found below the 1,500 meter mark. Their wide distribution and popularity as pets contributes to their successful introduction in other areas upon release especially in the southern areas of the United States as exotic feral birds.

Feral populations[edit]

Feral parrots on a street lamp in San Francisco; one has its wings open showing the red and green on the underside of a wing

Escaped cage birds are considered to be introduced in Spain. They are also found in the United States especially in Florida and California. They make up most of the feral population in San Francisco which is documented in the film The Wild Parrots of Telegraph Hill by Judy Irving,[7] based on the book of the same name by Mark Bittner. They are also seen in part of Hawaii.[8] Although these birds reproduce in the wild, the red-masked parakeet is not considered established in North America. Breeding populations of feral parakeets have been observed in San Diego County, Los Angeles, San Gabriel Valley, Orange County, California, Sunnyvale, Palo Alto, Long Beach, Houston, Texas, and San Francisco.[9] The birds have been observed feeding on the fruits of the cultivated tropical vegetation and nesting in the ubiquitous palm trees. These feral parrots are also introduced in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico.[citation needed]

Breeding[edit]

Clutches average three to four eggs and incubation is over within 23 or 24 days. Nests are usually made in tree cavities and they can breed successfully in small woodlots or even isolated trees in degraded forests. Juvenile birds fledge after 50 days with green plumage.[10]

Conservation status[edit]

It has been the tenth most common Neotropical parrot imported into the US with over 26,000 parakeets checked in from 1981 to 1985.[citation needed] This bird was formerly more common in its limited range, and was reclassified by the IUCN from a species of least concern to a species that is near threatened in 1994. This is due to declining populations brought by widespread local pet trade in Peru and Ecuador which attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation.[11]

References[edit]

References[edit]

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