Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs through the savanna woodland belt of West Africa, north of the rainforest belt from Mauritania through to south-western Chad, north-eastern Cameroon, and northern Central African Republic. The species undertakes seasonal movements in at least parts of its range, moving into dryer areas during the wet season.
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Geographic Range

Poicephalus senegalus are found in western central Africa: Cameroon, Chad, Ghana, Senegal, Mali, Nigeria, Guinea, Southern Mauritania, the Island of Los and the Ivory Coast (Hilton 1997; Birdie Boutique 2000).

Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

The head of P. senegalus is gray in color, including the beak. The wings, back, tailfeathers and parts of the breast are green (shades of which vary by bird). The green at the breast is in the shape of a "v", making it appear as if the P. senegalus are wearing a vest. The underside (belly) ranges from bright yellow to orange. The eyes, while starting out gray in the young, end up yellow in mature adults. Feet are either gray or pink.

It is difficult to physically distinguish male P. senegalus from female. Usually DNA tests or surgical sexing is required for 100% accuracy. There are however, a few physical traits which may identify the bird as male or female. Female P. senegalus tend to have a smaller head and beak, as well being more rounded at the crest. In addition, the feather coloring of the chest tends to extend the "v" shape further down the belly, stopping between the legs. The "v" on the male only goes halfway down the front and males also tend to have a larger head and beak.

Poicephalus senegalus range from 20-25cm in length (Birdie Boutique 2000; CNC Aviary 2001; Hilton 1997; Welch 1997).

Range mass: 115 to 125 g.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Poicephalus senegalus live on the edges of the savanna, nesting in trees (Hilton 1997) .

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland

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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

Poicephalus senegalus have a diet that consists mostly of fruit, seeds and grain. They may also eat locust beans and young tree buds.

When in captivity, P. senegalus are usually fed some sort of seed mixture that includes sunflower and safflower seeds, millet, pine nuts, almonds. They may also eat a variety of beans, chickpeas, soy beans, and other fresh vegetables and fruits. Some P. senegalus even enjoy chicken and mashed potatoes, or dog and cat biscuits (Hilton 1997; Welch 1997).

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
40 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 40 years (captivity) Observations: One specimen lived for 40 years in captivity (Brouwer et al. 2000).
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Reproduction

Not much information is known about the way P. senegalus breed in the wild, except that they nest in tall trees and their mating season is from September to November.

In captivity, they are housed in pairs in a sheltered aviary. Poicephalus senegalus females sexually mature around the age of 2 years, males at 3 years, although they may not breed until much later (even as late as 6-7 years). Usually between 2-4 eggs are laid at a time and the incubation of these eggs (by the female) lasts for 25-28 days. The young begin to venture out at about nine weeks old, but are not fully independent until 12 weeks (Arndt et al. 1996; Birdie Boutique 2000; Hilton 1997) .

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Poicephalus senegalus is considered common. Population density varies with the availabilty of food in each area (Arndt et al. 1996).

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Population

Population
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is reported to be often abundant (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
This species has been heavily traded: from 1994-2003, over 410,000 wild-caught individuals were exported from range states (UNEP-WCMC CITES Trade Database, October 2005). It is one of the most popular avian pets, since it is regarded as a small, quiet bird that bonds well. Due to the large numbers of this species traded, it was the subject of a CITES significant trade review, in which it was listed as of "possible concern" (Inskipp et al. 1988). Nonetheless, and despite international exports of vast numbers of birds, trade does not appear to have seriously impacted this species overall, with no significant national population declines reported.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed under CITES Appendix II.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

Poicephalus senegalus are viewed as pests by farmers. They often eat seeds from the farmers' fields of maize and millet, or steal peanuts that have been left out to dry. Many P. senegalus are trapped and killed for that reason (Hilton 1997; Poole 1997).

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Wikipedia

Senegal Parrot

The Senegal Parrot (Poicephalus senegalus) is a Poicephalus parrot which is a resident breeder across a wide range of west Africa.[1][2] It makes migrations within west Africa,[1] according to the availability of the fruit, seeds and blossoms which make up its diet. It is considered a farm pest in Africa, often feeding on maize or millet.[2] It is popular in aviculture.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

Poicephalus senegalus senegalus (yellow vest)
A pair of Senegal Parrots in the wild at Hann Park, Dakar, Senegal

There are three subspecies.[2] They do not differ in behaviour, but only in the colour of the "vest".[2] In the pet trade, the nominate subspecies is the most common though all three are raised and sold as pets.

  • P. s. senegalus (the nominate subspecies): this subspecies has a yellow vest; its native range includes southern Mauritania, southern Mali to Guinea and Lobos Island.[2]
  • P. s. mesotypus: this subspecies has an orange vest; its range is from eastern and northeastern Nigeria and Cameroon into southwest Chad.[2]
  • P. s. versteri: this subspecies has a deep-orange[3]/red vest; its range is from the Ivory Coast and Ghana east to western Nigeria.[2]

Habitat[edit]

Senegal Parrots are birds of open woodland and savanna.[1][2] They flock most commonly in countries in West Africa. [4] It is a gregarious species, continuously chattering with a range of whistling and squawking calls. Senegal Parrots live an average of approximately 25–30 years in the wild, and have been known to live for 50 years in captivity.[5]

Description[edit]

Senegal Parrots are about 23 cm (9 in.) long, weigh about 120 to 170 g. (4.2-6.0 oz.)[2] They have a relatively large head and beak for their overall size, and feathers form a short broad tail. Adults have a charcoal grey head, grey beak, bright yellow irises,[2] green back and throat, and yellow underparts and rump. The yellow and green areas on a Senegal Parrot's front form a V-shape resembling a yellow vest worn over green. Young Juveniles have dark grey, almost black, irises, which change to light grey.

Senegal Parrots are not sexually dimorphic, but there are some hypotheses which sometimes might help to determine the gender of adult birds:

  • The V-shape of the vest is usually longer in females; in females the green area extends down over the chest to between the legs, whereas in males the tip of the green area ends midway down the chest.[2]
  • The female's beak and head are generally slightly smaller and narrower than the male's.[2]
  • The under-tail covert feathers (short feathers under the base of the main tail feathers) are generally mostly yellow in the male and generally mostly green in the female.[2]
  • Males are generally, but not always, larger and heavier than female birds.[2]

Reproduction[edit]

One parrot is feeding the other as part of bonding behaviour between a pair.

Senegal parrots nest in holes in trees, often oil palms, usually laying three to four white eggs.[3] The eggs are about 3 cm long x 2.5 cm wide. The eggs are incubated by the female, starting after the second egg has been laid, for about 27 to 28 days. Newly hatched chicks have a sparse white down and they do not open their eyes until about two to three weeks after hatching. They are dependent on the female for food and warmth who remains in the nest most of the time until about four weeks after hatching when the chicks have enough feathers for heat insulation. During this time the male brings food for the female and chicks, and guards the nest site. From about two to four weeks after hatching the female also begins to collect food for the chicks. The chicks fly out of the nest at about 9 weeks and they become independent from their parents at about 12 weeks after hatching.[2]

Conservation status[edit]

Because of its vast range in Africa, the wild Senegal Parrot population is difficult to estimate.[1] Nevertheless, in 1981 concerns about extensive trapping of wild parrots for the pet trade lead to it being listed on appendix 2 of The Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), along with all parrot species.[1] This has made the trade, import and export of all wild caught parrots illegal.

Aviculture[edit]

Pets[edit]

Pet parrot in a cage with toys. The perch is made from a hard material to wear down the tips of claws.

Hand reared Senegal Parrots are one of the most popular parrots to be kept as pets,[1] and the most popular Poicephalus parrot.[3] Their calls are generally high pitched whistles and squawks, but they are not as noisy as many other parrot species.[1]

Wild caught Senegal Parrots do not usually become tame and do not make good pets.[2]

Breeding[edit]

Senegal Parrots are relatively easy to breed in captivity and there is a small industry in breeding and hand rearing Senegal Parrots and other parrots for the pet trade. In aviculture Senegal Parrots can start to breed at the age of 3 to 4 years in captivity, but some do not breed until age 5 years.Parent reared birds are known to breed as early as 2 years of age.[2]

Senegal Parrot nest boxes can be any of a variety of sizes and shapes; but for example, a nest box about 18 iches high and 8 inches to 10 inches square would be suitable.[2] An exit and entrance port about 2.5 inches in diameter would be suitable, and the birds may enlarge the port by chewing the wood. Nest boxes generally have a secure side door for inspecting the nest.

Gallery[edit]

External sources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h BirdLife International (2012). "Poicephalus senegalus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "wingsscc.com - senegal parrot". Retrieved 28 February 2007. 
  3. ^ a b c d Alderton, David (2003). The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Caged and Aviary Birds. London, England: Hermes House. p. 222. ISBN 1-84309-164-X. 
  4. ^ Juniper, Tony; Parr, Mike (2003). Parrots - A Guide to the Parrots of the World. London, England: Christopher Helm. p. 379. ISBN 0-7136-6933-0. 
  5. ^ http://www.beautyofbirds.com/senegalparrots.html
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