The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 2005. website, Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource, 2005.12.06
  • Absolute Astronomy Contributors, 2009. "Toco Toucan" (On-line). Accessed February 12, 2010 at
  • Baussart, S. 2007. Feeding mechanism in fruit-eating bird toucan, Ramphastos toco. Comparative Biochemisty and Physiology, 146: S107.
  • Bird Paradise, World's Largest Birdstore, 2009. "Toucans/Toucanets" (On-line). Accessed February 11, 2010 at
  • BirdLife International 2012. Ramphastos toco
  • BirdLife International, 2009. "IUCN red list of threatened species" (On-line). Accessed February 11, 2010 at
  • Castro, M., S. Recco-Pimentel, G. Rocha. 2003. Sexual dimorphism in Ramphastos toco and Ramphostos dicolorus (Piciformes, Aves). Revista de Biologia Tropical, 51: 241-245.
  • Drews, A., S. Redrobe, J. Patterson-Kane. 2004. Successful reduction of hepatocellular hemosiderin content by dietary modification in toco toucans (Ramphastos toco) with iron-storage disease. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 18: 101-105.
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. ix + 259
  • McNab, B. 2009. Ecological factors affect the level and scaling of avian BMR. Comparative Biochemisty and Physiology, 152: 22-45.
  • National Geographic Contributors, 2010. "Ramphastos toco" (On-line). Accessed February 11, 2010 at
  • New World Encyclopedia Contributors, 2008. "Toucan" (On-line). Accessed February 12, 2010 at
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Pizo, M., C. Donatti, N. Guedes, M. Galetti. 2008. Conservation puzzle: Endangered hyacinth macaw depeds on its nest predator for reproduction. Biological Coservation, 141: 792-796.
  • Ragusa-Netto, J. 2006. Abundance and frugivory of the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) in a gallery forset in Brazil's Southern Pantanal. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 66: 133-142.
  • Ragusa-Netto, J. 2008. Toco toucan feeding ecology and local abundance in a habitat mosaic in the Brazilian cerrado. Ornithologia Neotropical, 19: 345-359.
  • Seki, Y., M. Schneider, M. Meyers. 2005. Structure and mechanical behavior of a toucan beak. Acta Materialia, 53: 5281-5296.
  • Tattersall, G., D. Andrade, A. Abe. 2009. Heat exchange from the toucan bill reveals a controllable cascular thermal radiator. Science, 325: 468-470.
  • UNEP-WCMC, 2009. "
    UNEP-WCMC species database: CITES-listed species
    " (On-line). Accessed March 18, 2010 at
  • Zoological Society of San Diego, 2010. "Toco Toucan" (On-line). Accessed February 12, 2010 at


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