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Range DescriptionRamphastos ambiguus occurs as three subspecies in Central America and South America. Subspecies swainsonii occurs through Central America from south-east Honduras and Nicaragua. In Costa Rica, the taxon occurs in Corcovado National Park and Braulio Carrillo National Park. Its range extends through Panama and west Colombia, where it is limited in the east by the Cauca Valley having been extirpated from the Magdalena Valley. It continues west of the Andes as far as El Oro, south-west Ecuador (del Hoyo et al. 2002). Here it is apparently uncommon and has undergone a marked decline, although a sizeable population persists at Esmeraldas (del Hoyo et al. 2002, Restall et al. 2006). Subspecies abbrevianus occurs in north-east Colombia and northern Venezuela, possibly disjunctly (del Hoyo et al. 2002). It is scarce and local in the latter, with most records from Sierra de Perijá and the Andes (del Hoyo et al. 2002, Hilty 2003, Restall et al. 2006). The nominate subspecies ambiguus occurs east of the Andes from south-west Colombia through east Ecuador, where it is rare (del Hoyo et al. 2002, Restall et al. 2006). It is also uncommon in Peru, where its distribution reaches Junín (del Hoyo et al. 2002).