Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Ramphastos ambiguus occurs as three subspecies in Central America and South America. Subspecies swainsonii occurs through Central America from south-east Honduras and Nicaragua. In Costa Rica, the taxon occurs in Corcovado National Park and Braulio Carrillo National Park. Its range extends through Panama and west Colombia, where it is limited in the east by the Cauca Valley having been extirpated from the Magdalena Valley. It continues west of the Andes as far as El Oro, south-west Ecuador (del Hoyo et al. 2002). Here it is apparently uncommon and has undergone a marked decline, although a sizeable population persists at Esmeraldas (del Hoyo et al. 2002, Restall et al. 2006). Subspecies abbrevianus occurs in north-east Colombia and northern Venezuela, possibly disjunctly (del Hoyo et al. 2002). It is scarce and local in the latter, with most records from Sierra de Perijá and the Andes (del Hoyo et al. 2002, Hilty 2003, Restall et al. 2006). The nominate subspecies ambiguus occurs east of the Andes from south-west Colombia through east Ecuador, where it is rare (del Hoyo et al. 2002, Restall et al. 2006). It is also uncommon in Peru, where its distribution reaches Junín (del Hoyo et al. 2002).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs in a range of habitats, including lowland forests, secondary habitats, clearings, swamps and plantations. It usually occurs above 1,000 m, dropping to 400 m in Venezuela. It tends to feed mainly on fruits, to the extent that it is a major disperser for some fruiting tree species: up 45% of a fruit crop can be taken in a single session. Palms, flowers, arthropods and small vertebrates also form a part of its diet. Breeding is between September and July in all areas, with the nest made in a cavity 5-15 m above the ground (del Hoyo et al. 2002).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ramphastos ambiguus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A3c

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Taylor, J. & Butchart, S.

Contributor/s
Lees, A.

Justification

Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, and habitat loss elsewhere within its extensive range, it is suspected that the population of this species will decline rapidly over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Vulnerable.

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Population

Population
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. (1996).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats

Although this species is tolerant of habitat degradation, the projected rate of deforestation in the Amazon basin is extensive enough to still constitute a primary threat (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011, A. Lees in litt. 2011). It is also hunted in some areas (del Hoyo et al. 2002).

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006).
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Wikipedia

Black-mandibled Toucan

The Black-mandibled Toucan (Ramphastos ambiguus) is a large toucan from northern South America.

Taxonomy[edit]

The Black-mandibled Toucan at one time was considered closely related to the Choco Toucan but is only distantly related per genetics. However, it is considered very closely related to the Chestnut-mandibled Toucan. The Black-mandibled and Chestnut-mandibled do not overlap in the wild and are found to differ 1.35% in mitochondrial DNA. The SACC and NACC of the AOU have recently indicated (in 2010) that these birds should be classified as conspecific.

Subspecies[edit]

Distribution[edit]

Its distribution ranges along the eastern slope of the Andes from Peru, north through Ecuador and Colombia, to Venezuela as far as the coastal ranges.

Habitat[edit]

This species is adapted to a wide variety of habitats, from plains to tropical and subtropical forests. It lives at altitudes of 100–2400 m. in humid montane forests, with a preference for the canopy and edge.

Description[edit]

This species has a total length of 47–61 cm (19–24 in) and weighs from 584 to 746 g (1.287 to 1.645 lb).[2] Among all toucans and living members of the Piciformes order, only the Toco Toucan and the White-throated Toucan average larger than the similarly-sized Black-mandibled and Chestnut-mandibled races. Among standard measurements, the short wing chord is 20.4 to 24.8 cm (8.0 to 9.8 in), the huge bill is 12.9 to 20 cm (5.1 to 7.9 in), the tail is 14.8 to 17.5 cm (5.8 to 6.9 in), and the tarsus is 4.7 to 5.9 cm (1.9 to 2.3 in).[3]

Its plumage is mainly black. Upper breast and throat are bright yellow, with a thin red border on the throat, a creamy rump and a scarlet anal area. The bill is bicolor and massive, a little shorter in the female. It is lemon-yellowish on the upper side and blackish on the rest of the maxilla and on the mandible, often brown close to the base. The skin of the face around the eyes is pale green or yellow-green.[4]

Behavior[edit]

Little is known about the Black-mandibled Toucan's behavior or life history but it is generally predicted to mirror that of the Chestnut-mandibled Toucan. Like its sister species, the call of the Ramphastos ambiguus is a yelping, far-carrying cry described as “Díos te dé” (Spanish for "God give you..."). This species mainly feed on fruits, but occasionally on lizards, rodents, smaller birds and insects.

The breeding season lasts from March to June. The nests are usually located in a cavity in rotting wood at 10–25 meters above the ground. The females lay 2-4 white eggs incubating for about two weeks.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Ramphastos ambiguus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Nashville Zoo
  3. ^ Toucans, Barbets and Honeyguides (Bird Families of the World) by Lester Short & Jennifer Horne. Oxford University Press (2001), ISBN 978-0198546665.
  4. ^ a b Oiseaux.net
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