Habitat and Ecology
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ramphastos ambiguus
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
Based on a model of deforestation in the Amazon basin, and habitat loss elsewhere within its extensive range, it is suspected that the population of this newly-lumped species is declining moderately rapidly over three generations, and it has therefore been classified as Near Threatened.
Although this species is tolerant of habitat degradation, the projected rate of deforestation in the Amazon basin is extensive enough to still constitute a primary threat (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011, A. Lees in litt. 2011). It is also hunted in some areas (del Hoyo et al. 2002).
Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.
Conservation Actions ProposedExpand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximising biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006).
The black-mandibled toucan at one time was considered closely related to the Choco toucan but is only distantly related per genetics. However, it is considered very closely related to the chestnut-mandibled toucan. The black-mandibled and chestnut-mandibled do not overlap in the wild and are found to differ 1.35% in mitochondrial DNA. The SACC and NACC of the AOU have recently indicated (in 2010) that these birds should be classified as conspecific.
This species is adapted to a wide variety of habitats, from plains to tropical and subtropical forests. It lives at altitudes of 100–2400 m. in humid montane forests, with a preference for the canopy and edge.
This species has a total length of 47–61 cm (19–24 in) and weighs from 584 to 746 g (1.287 to 1.645 lb). Among all toucans and living members of the Piciformes order, only the toco toucan and the white-throated toucan average larger than the similarly-sized black-mandibled and chestnut-mandibled races. Among standard measurements, the short wing chord is 20.4 to 24.8 cm (8.0 to 9.8 in), the huge bill is 12.9 to 20 cm (5.1 to 7.9 in), the tail is 14.8 to 17.5 cm (5.8 to 6.9 in), and the tarsus is 4.7 to 5.9 cm (1.9 to 2.3 in).
Its plumage is mainly black. Upper breast and throat are bright yellow, with a thin red border on the throat, a creamy rump and a scarlet anal area. The bill is bicolor and massive, a little shorter in the female. It is lemon-yellowish on the upper side and blackish on the rest of the maxilla and on the mandible, often brown close to the base. The skin of the face around the eyes is pale green or yellow-green.
Little is known about the black-mandibled toucan's behavior or life history but it is generally predicted to mirror that of the chestnut-mandibled toucan. Like its sister species, the call of the Ramphastos ambiguus is a yelping, far-carrying cry described as “Díos te dé” (Spanish for "God give you..."). This species mainly feed on fruits, but occasionally on lizards, rodents, smaller birds and insects.
The breeding season lasts from March to June. The nests are usually located in a cavity in rotting wood at 10–25 meters above the ground. The females lay 2-4 white eggs incubating for about two weeks.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Ramphastos ambiguus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Nashville Zoo
- Toucans, Barbets and Honeyguides (Bird Families of the World) by Lester Short & Jennifer Horne. Oxford University Press (2001), ISBN 978-0198546665.
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