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Range DescriptionBaillonius bailloni occurs in south-east Brazil, east Paraguay and north-east Argentina. In Brazil, it is most common in montane regions (up to 1,550 m) of Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais to Rio Grande do Sul, but also occurs in Pernambuco, and has been re-introduced into ex-Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro6,7. It is apparently less common in Argentina2 and Paraguay, where it is probably most numerous in south-east Paraguay5. A recent survey of 24 forest fragments in the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul, only found the species in the largest fragment (Paranapiacaba, 1,400 km2). Surveys showed that the encounter rate at this site had declined by 47.5% between 1987-1991 and 19988, but in Argentina it remains locally fairly common in Misiones9,10. It is less conspicuous than other toucans in the same region, and may be more easily overlooked.