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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Mulleripicus pulverulentus is found in South-East Asia, from northern India through the foothills of the Himalayas to southern China, Nepal (a rare and local resident), Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand, and through peninsular Malaysia and Singapore to the western islands of Indonesia and the Philippines (del Hoyo et al. 2002, Inskipp et al. 2011). The current population has been estimated at 26,000-550,000 individuals, which according to previous levels of forest cover may be a 90% decline on historical levels, and a significant decline within the past couple of decades (Lammertink et al. 2009).

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© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Behaviour This resident species breeds between March and May in the west of its range and without a distinct season in South-East Asia (Lammertink 2004). Clutch size is two to four eggs. Nest-hole excavation, incubation and chick-rearing are conducted by both sexes, with helpers at some nests. It forages in noisy groups of three to six individuals and sometimes more (Lammertink 2004). Groups occupy large territories. Habitat It occupies primary semi-open moist deciduous and tropical evergreen old growth, lower elevation forests, as well as adjacent secondary forest and clearings with scattered tall trees. It prefers dipterocarp and teak forests in certain areas, as well as swamp-forest and tall mangroves. It is most frequent in lowlands and lower hills below 600 m, but does occur up to 1,100 m in the Himalayas and occasionally up to 2,000 m. Diet Foraging groups search and exploit nests of social insects (ants, termites, and stingless bees), often in trunks and branches of old live trees. Birds may also take small fruit (Lammertink 2004).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Source: IUCN

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2bc

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s
Lammertink, M., Baral, H. & Inskipp, C.

Justification
This species is listed as Vulnerable as it has suffered a rapid population decline over the past 20 years (three generations) due to loss of primary forest cover throughout much of its range. However the true rate of decline may be greater than currently estimated, and evidence of such declines would result in the species being uplisted in the future.


History
  • Vulnerable (VU)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)